GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 15, June, 1993
Table of Contents
The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the
Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.
Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: (617) 876-3296
675 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-3309
USA Electronic mail:
Michael Bushnell is still working on the GNU Hurd and maintains
tar. Jim Blandy has prepared GNU Emacs 19.
Roland McGrath is polishing the GNU C library, maintaining GNU
make and helping with the GNU Hurd.
Tom Lord is working on Oleo, the GNU spreadsheet, as well as Rx,
a faster replacement for regex. Jan Brittenson is working on
the C interpreter. Mike Haertel is making GNU
POSIX-compliant and beginning work on optical character recognition.
Noah Friedman is our system ambiguator, release uncoordinator
and maintains a few GNU programs in his copious spare time.
Carl Hoffman has hopped aboard as fundraiser and conference
organizer. Melissa Weisshaus is now in charge of Publications.
She is currently editing new editions of our documentation and working
on the GNU Utilities Manual.
Lisa `Opus' Goldstein has been promoted to Treasurer, after the
resignation of Robert J. Chassell who had been our
Secretary/Treasurer since FSF was formed 7 years ago; Bob is now writing
his Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp and remains on our
Board of Directors. Larissa Carlson is Lisa's new office
assistant; Gena Lynne Bean has left us to further her education.
Spike MacPhee assists RMS with administrative tasks.
Charles Hannum works on typesetting and many other jobs.
Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless
tasks such as C compiler maintenance. Volunteer Len Tower
remains our on-line JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists
and gnUSENET, information requests, etc.
Written and Edited by: Jan Brittenson, Melissa Weisshaus,
Noah S. Friedman, Charles Hannum, Richard Stallman
and Leonard H. Tower Jr.
Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa and Jamal Hannah
Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
The GNU's Bulletin is published in January and June of each year.
Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send
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a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also
Copyright (C) 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This page is licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.
What Is the Free Software Foundation?
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating
restrictions on people's abilities and rights to copy, redistribute,
understand and modify computer programs. We do this by promoting the
development and use of free software in all areas of computer use.
Specifically, we are putting together a complete integrated software
system named "GNU" (GNU's Not Unix) (pronounced "guh-new") that
will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are
already working and we are distributing them now.
The word "free" in our name pertains to freedom, not price. You may or
may not pay money to get GNU software. Either way, you have two specific
freedoms once you have the software: first, the freedom to copy the program
and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to
change the program as you wish, by having full access to source code.
Furthermore, you can study the source and learn how such programs are
written. You may then be able to port it, improve it and share your
changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a
fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, or you may give away
Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be
available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the
development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete
enough to eliminate the need for you to purchase a proprietary system.
Besides developing GNU, FSF distributes copies of GNU software and
manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts tax-deductible gifts to
support GNU development. Most of FSF's funds come from its distribution
service. We are tax exempt; you can deduct donations to us on your
U.S. tax returns.
The Officers of the Foundation are: Richard M. Stallman, President;
and Lisa Goldstein, Treasurer/Secretary. The Foundation Board of
Directors are: Richard M. Stallman, Gerald J. Sussman, Harold
Abelson, Robert J. Chassell, and Leonard H. Tower Jr.
What Is Copyleft?
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public
domain, uncopyrighted. But this allows anyone to copyright and restrict
its use against the author's wishes, thus denying others the right to
access and freely redistribute it. This completely perverts the
To prevent this, we copyright our software in a novel manner. Typical
software companies use copyrights to take away your freedoms. We use
the copyleft to preserve them. It is a legal instrument that
requires those who pass on the program to include the rights to further
redistribute it, and to see and change the code; the code and rights
become legally inseparable.
The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from a combination of a
regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL).
The GPL is a copying license which basically says
that you have the freedoms discussed above. An alternate form, the
GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to certain GNU
Libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary
executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is
included in all GNU source code distributions and in many of our
manuals. We will also send you a printed copy upon request.
Free Software Support
The Free Software Foundation does not provide any technical support.
Although we create software, we leave it to others to earn a living
providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as
doctors and lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely
redistributable entities for which the practitioners charge a
distribution and service fee.
We maintain a list of people who offer support and other consulting
services, called the GNU Service Directory. It is in the file
`etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the
GCC distribution and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on anonymous FTP host
prep.ai.mit.edu. Contact us if you would like a printed copy
or wish to be listed in it.
If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have
many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements and questions.
They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the
You can get a list of these mailing lists by mailing your request to either
address on the front cover.
When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While
our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not. Our
task is so large that we must focus on that which helps the community as
a whole. We do not have the resources to help individuals. We may send
you a patch for a bug that helps us test the fix and ensure its quality.
If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get
one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists.
Otherwise, use the Service Directory.
So, please do not ask us to help you install the software or figure out
how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script does not work
or where the documentation is unclear.
If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via
UUCP. Contact a local UUCP site, or a commercial UUCP site such as:
UUNET Communications Services
3110 Fairview Park Drive - Suite 570
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone: 1-800-4UUNET4 or (703) 204-8000
Fax: (703) 204-8001
A long list of commercial UUCP and Internet service providers is posted
periodically to USENET in the newsgroup
with `Subject: How to become a USENET site'.
Hundred Acre Consulting Expands
Hundred Acre Consulting continues to provide support and
development services, with its specialty being the GNU CC and C++
compilers. It continues its policy of donating a percentage of its
profit to the FSF. Since we described its services just 5 months ago,
it has hired 3 more people and moved to bigger offices. The new address
Hundred Acre Consulting
5301 Longley Lane, Suite D-144
Reno, NV 89511
Phone: (702) 829-9700 or 1-800-245-2885
Fax: (702) 829-9926
Donations Translate Into Free Software
If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript and other free software,
you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the
future--remember, donations translate into more free software!
Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly
accept all currencies, although the U.S. dollar is the most
If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations,
please arrange to have your donation matched by your employer. If you
do not know, please ask your personnel department.
$500 $250 $100 $50 other $________
Circle the amount you are donating,
cut out this form,
and send it with your donation to:
Free Software Foundation
675 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-3309
Cygnus Matches Donations!
To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus
Support will match gifts by its employees, and by its customers and
Cygnus will match donations from its employees up to a maximum of $1000
per employee, and will match donations from customers and their
employees at 50% to a maximum of $1000 per customer. Cygnus Support
will donate up to a total of $10,000 in 1993.
Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by
eligible persons to Cygnus Support where they will be matched and
forwarded to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor
with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on
U.S. tax returns). Donations sent to the FSF directly will not be
matched, except by prior arrangement with Cygnus Support.
OCEAN Integrated-Circuit Design System
Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, has developed OCEAN, a
comprehensive chip design package. It includes a full set of powerful
tools for synthesis and verification of semi-custom sea-of-gates and
gate-array chips. OCEAN covers the back-end of the design
trajectory--from circuit level, down to layout and a working chip.
OCEAN provides interactive tools for placement, routing, simulation and
extraction, either automatically or manually guided. It is available as
free software, with full source code, and is known to run on Linux, HP
and Sun workstations under the X Window System. For import and export
of data, it knows about EDIF, BLIF, SLS, GDSII, CIF, SPICE and LDM.
You can obtain OCEAN by anonymous FTP from
donau.et.tudelft.nl. For more information, contact
email@example.com on the Internet.
Informal "GCC Consortium"
A group of companies including Intel, Motorola, Texas Instruments &
Analog Devices have pooled funds to support central maintenance of
GNU CC. The maintenance will be coordinated by Richard Kenner
of New York University.
The task of central maintenance is to take responsibility for fixing
bugs, integrating and cleaning up contributions, making releases and
writing high priority improvements.
Richard Stallman hopes this will enable him to undertake a new
Moscow Free Software Conference
The International Center for Scientific and Technical Information hosted
a free software conference in Moscow, April 19--23, 1993. Over two
hundred people attended, arriving from the Commonwealth of Independent
States, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iran, Japan, the Netherlands, the
United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Guest of honor Richard Stallman explained why he writes free
software. Among the topics of the conference were an Algol--68 to C
converter, the Andrew User Interface System, Coexistence in a World of
New Freedoms, Efficient Recognition of Static Search Sets with
gperf, experiences from implementing a free Modula--2
translator, Russian Experiences from a Children's Computer Club, the
Russian SQL server currently under development, the Russian PLATON
Integrated Bank System, GNU Documentation in Russia, Linux in Education
and Free Software in Russia. Other topics included resource
organization (databases and directories), and free software business
The conference was sponsored by PC World magazine, PC Center
"Techno", UrbanSoft Ltd. of St. Petersburg, Trading
House Ostankino, KLOTO Scientific Research,
Zelenogradsky Center "Zelax" and John Goode.
Write Victor P. Ivannikov,
firstname.lastname@example.org, or Yuri P.
email@example.com, to contact GNU in Russia.
For more information about the conference, contact Geoffrey S.
LPF Files Amicus Brief
The League for Programming Freedom has filed an amicus
("friend of the court") brief to support American
Multi-Systems, a small business that was shut down by a court for
violating two casino game software patents held by a company called
Fortunet, which has shut down other makers of casino games in the
past, obtained a preliminary injunction restraining Vern Blanchard,
the owner of AMS, from selling or servicing a Bingo program. The League
for Programming Freedom asked its members for prior art. Marshall
Midden and Steve Peltz found a multi--user Bingo program that had
been played on the
Plato system in the 1970's. The judge,
however, granted the motion on the grounds that a time--sharing system
playing Bingo is different from a networked system playing Bingo.
Fortunet has an expert witness with an impressive resume who is
expressing the most absurd opinions.
The LPF brief argues against the validity of software patents in general
and these patents in particular. It also argues that they do not apply
to the AMS Bingo system. The brief has already had an effect--the
judge has scheduled a hearing to reconsider the injuction.
Fighting a patent in court is a grueling experience even if you
ultimately succeed. The only feasible way to solve the problem of
software patents is to address the problem as a whole. This is the main
activity of the LPF. To succeed, it needs your support.
What Is the LPF?
The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom
to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel"
interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents. The LPF does not
endorse free software or the FSF.
The League's members include programmers, entrepreneurs, students,
professors, and even software companies.
From the League membership form:
The League for Programming Freedom is a grass-roots organization of
professors, students, business people, programmers, and users dedicated
to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League is not
opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on
individual programs. Our aim is to reverse the recent changes made by
judges in response to special interests.
Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers
and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.
To join, please send a check and the following information:
Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both).
The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please indicate
whether it is your home address or your work address).
The company you work for, and your position.
Your email address, so the League can contact you for political action.
(If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say so, but please
provide your email address anyway.)
Please mention anything about you which would enable your endorsement
of LPF to impress the public.
Please say whether you would like to help with LPF activities.
The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation and is not
itself a free software organization. The FSF supports the LPF because,
like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered by
software patents. You are in danger too! It would be easy to ignore
the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent
to organize before that happens.
If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information,
or send Internet mail to
firstname.lastname@example.org. The address is:
League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square - #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 243-4091
Project GNU Wish List
Wishes for this issue are for:
Volunteers to distribute this Bulletin at technical conferences, trade
shows, etc. Please phone the number on the front cover to make
Money, as always. If you use and appreciate our software, please send a
One way to give us a small amount of money is to order a distribution
tape, diskette or CD-ROM. This may not count as a donation for tax
purposes, but it can qualify as a business expense. This is especially
helpful if you work for a business where the word "donation" is
Oleo extensions or other free software for business, such as
600+ megabyte SCSI disks to give us more space to develop software.
A 386 or 486 PC compatible with 200+ MB of disk and an Ethernet
A 4mm DAT tape drive, an Exabyte tape drive, a Sun SPARCstation and a
Sun-3/60 or 4/110.
Companies to lend us capable programmers and technical writers for at
least six months. True wizards may be welcome for shorter periods, but
we have found that six months is the minimum time for a good programmer
to finish a worthwhile project.
Volunteers to help write programs and documentation. Send mail to
email@example.com for the task list and coding standards.
Professors who might be interested in sponsoring or hosting research
assistants to do GNU development, with FSF support.
Speech and character recognition software and systems (if the devices
aren't too weird), with the device drivers if possible. This would help
the productivity of partially disabled people (including a few we know).
New quotes and ideas for articles in the GNU's Bulletin. We
particularly like to highlight organizations involved with free
information exchange and companies providing free software support as a
Copies of newspaper and journal articles mentioning the GNU Project or
GNU software. Send these to the address on the front cover, or send a
The Text Software Initiative
The Text Software Initiative (TSI) is an international effort to promote
the development and use of free software for all kinds of text analysis
and manipulation, including markup of physical and logical text
features, linguistic analysis and annotation, browsing and retrieval,
statistical analysis and other text-related tasks in research in
computational linguistics, humanities computing, terminology and
lexicography, speech, etc. A central component of TSI is the
development of guidelines and standards for text software, in order to
ensure compatibility, extendability and reusability.
TSI borrows from the principles of FSF, by promoting distributed
software development on a voluntary basis and protecting the freedom to
copy, redistribute and modify software.
For more information, contact the project coordinators, who are Nancy
firstname.lastname@example.org and Jean Veronis,
Free Information Sources
There is more to freely redistributable information than software. Here
is a partial list of organizations providing other forms of freely
email@example.com, is working on a
project called "FreeLore". One goal is to create a core of useful,
copylefted textbooks. Currently, he is testing a prototype curriculum
for students from junior-high school through early college; the
curriculum is written in Texinfo. The FreeLore project is looking for
volunteers. For more information, contact John Goodwin.
The Online Book Initiative
The Online Book Initiative focuses on books, conference proceedings,
reference material, catalogues, etc. that can be freely shared.
Currently, OBI has about 200MB of (mostly compressed) text online,
ranging from poetry to standards documents to novels. Everything can be
accessed via anonymous FTP to
obi.std.com. You can also dial
world.std.com with a modem (617-739-9753, 8N1) and create an
account to access this information (login as
new). Accounts on
world are charged for their connect time (ask
firstname.lastname@example.org for details).
Project Gutenberg is the brainchild of Michael Hart. Back in 1971, he
decided to use extra computer time to type in copyright-free articles,
and he has not stopped since. What started with the Declaration of
Independence has grown to include text ranging from the King James
version of the Bible, to The Scarlet Letter, to data from the
1990 U.S. Census.
Professor Hart's hope for ultimate success derives from the nature of
what he calls `Replicator Technology': once anything is stored in a
computer, it can be reproduced indefinitely, making it available to all
who want it.
Texts from Project Gutenberg are available at a number of FTP sites,
mrcnext.cso.uiuc.edu in file `/etext' and
oes.orst.edu in file `/pub/almanac/etext'. For
instructions on how to obtain text from Bitnet, send the word `HELP' in
the body of a message to
BITFTP%PUCC.BITNET@mitvma.mit.edu on the Internet).
Instructions will be mailed. Or look at
bit.listserv.gutnberg, a USENET
Free Software and GNU in Japan
ICOT (Institute for Next Generation Computer Technology) is distributing
the fifth-generation software produced by their research efforts as free
software. This includes over 70 megabytes of programs for symbol
processing, knowledge representation, problem solving and inference and
natural language processing. For more information, contact
email@example.com, and Nobuyuki Hikichi,
firstname.lastname@example.org, continue to work on the GNU Project in
Japan. They have translated the FSF Order Form and GNU's Bulletin into
Japanese and are distributing them widely. They ask for donations and
also offer GNU software consulting. Recently they began redistributing
their Japanese translation of the GNU General Public License Version 2.
This translation is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous
`/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. Yukitoshi Fujimura from
Addison--Wesley Publishers in Japan greatly contributed to this
translation. Work is underway on a formal translation of the GNU Library
General Public License.
Japanese versions of GNU Emacs (
nemacs), Epoch (
and MULE are available and widely used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual
Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many character sets at once.
Eventually its features will be merged into FSF's version of Emacs.
email@example.com, is beta testing MULE; you
can FTP sources from
sh.wide.ad.jp in `/JAPAN/mule'
etlport.etl.go.jp in `/pub/mule'.
The Village Center, Inc. has printed a Japanese translation of the
GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and uploaded the Texinfo source
to various bulletin boards. Recently, they also published a copylefted
book, Mieko's Think GNU. This appears to be the first copylefted
publication in Japan, apart from those by the FSF. Part of the revenue
generated is donated to the FSF.
The address is:
Village Center, Inc.
Kanda Amerex Bldg. 2F
1-16, 3-Chome, Misaki-Cho
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101
A group connected with the commercial personal computer network in Japan
is writing and distributing a copylefted hardware (circuit diagram)
design system that runs on a MIPS-architecture CPU. The
which runs on this machine, is a subset of Unix that uses GCC and GDB as
the system's compiler and debugger. They are also running Mach and
Many groups in Japan distribute GNU software, including JUG (a PC user
group), ASCII (publishers) and the Fujitsu FM Towns users group.
Anonymous UUCP is also now available in Japan; for more information
firstname.lastname@example.org. Publishers in Japan are steadily
releasing more articles and books about GNU software and FSF.
You can order GNU software directly from the FSF. For Japan, we provide
an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, as well as a toll--free facsimile
email@example.com for a copy of
the order form. We encourage you to buy tapes: every 150 tape orders
allows FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more free software.
The FSF does not distribute
nepoch or MULE on
tape; however MULE is available on the GNU Source Code CD-ROM.
Project GNU Status Report
GNU Software Configuration Scheme
We now have a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in
order to compile them. This makes it possible to configure all GNU
software in the same way. In particular, all GNU software will support
the same alternatives for naming machine types and system types.
The configuration scheme also supports configuring a directory that
contains several GNU packages with one command. When we have a complete
system, this will make it possible to configure the entire system at
once, eliminating the need to learn how to configure each of the
individual packages that make up the GNU system.
For tools used in compilation, the configuration scheme also lets you
specify both the host system and the target system, so you can configure
and build cross-compilation tools easily.
Emacs version 19, GCC version 2 and GDB version 4 support the new
configuration scheme, as do most of our other programs and collections.
We are developing the GNU Hurd, a set of servers that run on top of
Mach. Mach is a free message-passing kernel being developed at CMU.
The Hurd servers, working with the GNU C Library, will provide Unix-like
functionality. Together with Mach they are the last major components
necessary for a complete GNU system. Currently there are free ports of
the Mach kernel to the 386 PC and the DEC PMAX workstation. (The PMAX
is one kind of MIPS-based DECstation.) Other free ports of Mach are in
progress. Contact CMU for more information if you want to help with one
of those or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd and GNU C Library is
easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting GCC)
once a Mach port to a particular kind of hardware exists.
There are some large projects relating to the Hurd that can be done by
volunteers. Those who can read and understand the source code with
fewer than two questions, and have the time for a large project, are
invited to make themselves known to Michael Bushnell,
Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor. GNU Emacs 18.59 is the current version. Emacs 18
maintenance continues for simple bug fixes.
Version 19 is in beta-release. See "GNUs Flashes" and "Contents of the
Emacs Tape" for details.
Thanks to Alan Carroll and the people who worked on Epoch for generating
initial feedback to a multi-windowed Emacs, to Lucid, Inc. for
implementing X Selections, faces, the optimizing byte compiler and the
default menu bar, to Eric Raymond who has evaluated 460 out of 851
possible new Lisp libraries, and to Stephen Gildea for doing the
Emacs 19 reference card.
Features under consideration for later releases of Emacs include:
- different visibility conditions for regions, and for various
windows showing one buffer
- incrementally saving the undo history in a file, so that
recover-file also reinstalls the buffer's undo history
- support for variable-width fonts
- support for wide character sets including all the world's
- support for display using an X toolkit
GNU Fortran (
GNU Fortran is in "private" alpha test (testing by a small group of
experts) and is not yet publicly released. Until
g77 is fully
released to the public, we ask people to use
f2c (a Fortran-to-C
gcc (the GNU C compiler). As
g77 uses a
lot of these two tools (the
f2c libraries and the
end), using them and reporting any problems you find will help speed the
g77. See "Contents of the Languages Tapes."
The primary focus of the alpha test is to test the
g77 front end,
since that has most of the new code. The secondary focus of the alpha
test is to test the integration between the front end and the back end.
Currently, this is where most of the bugs seem to be. The tertiary
focus is the quality of code generated by the GNU back end.
A mailing list exists for those interested in
g77. To subscribe,
contact the author and/or current maintainer of
g77, write to
GCC supports both ANSI standard and traditional C, as well as the GNU
extensions to C. Two versions of GCC are being maintained in parallel.
Version 1 is stable, but is still maintained with bug fixes. For more
information about version 1, see "Contents of the Languages Tape."
Version 2 of GCC is now reliable. It also has front ends for the
languages C++ and Objective C.
New front ends are being developed, but they are not part of GCC yet. A
front end for Fortran is in alpha test. A front end for Ada is being
funded through the Ada 9X standards committee. Since it is a quite
complex language, we expect completion to take a while. Volunteers are
also developing front ends for Modula-3, Pascal and Cobol. For more
information about version 2, see "Contents of the Experimental Tape."
Steve Chamberlain, Per Bothner and others at Cygnus Support have
rewritten the binary utilities (including the linker). Version 2 is
based on the same Binary File Descriptor (BFD) library used by GDB. All
the tools can be run on a host that differs from the target (e.g.
cross-linking is supported). Furthermore, various forms of COFF and
other object file formats are supported. A tool can now deal with
object files in multiple formats all at once. For example, the linker
can read object files using two different formats, and write the output
in a third format. The linker interprets a superset of the AT&T Linker
Command Language, which allows very general control over where segments
are placed in memory.
GNU C Library
Roland McGrath continues to work on the GNU C Library. It now supports
everything required by the ANSI C-1989 and POSIX 1003.1-1990 standards,
most facilities of POSIX 1003.2 and many additional Unix functions (BSD
and System V). In the Hurd, the C Library will do much of what the
system calls do in Unix. Mike Haertel has written a fast
which wastes less memory than the old GNU
malloc. The GNU
regular-expression functions (
regex) now mostly conform to the
POSIX 1003.2 standard.
stdio lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a
few C functions. The
fmemopen function uses this to open a
stream on a string, which can grow as necessary. You can define your
printf formats to use a C function you have written. For
example, you can safely use format strings from user input to implement
printf-like function for another programming language.
getopt functions are already used to parse options,
including long options, in many GNU utilities.
Version 1.06 of the GNU C Library has just been released. It includes
the relocating allocator used in Emacs 19, as well as new ports to Dynix
on Sequent Symmetry, SCO and SVR4 on i386, and Solaris 2 on SPARC. This
is the first release to include the GNU C Library Reference
Manual. For more information, see "Contents of Experimental Tape."
Rx is a faster implementation of the GNU regex functions. It is
currently in a beta state, and we are not yet distributing it on tape.
For more information, contact Tom Lord,
Aubrey Jaffer has written JACAL, a symbolic mathematics system for the
simplification and manipulation of equations and single- and
multiple-valued algebraic expressions constructed of numbers, variables,
radicals, and algebraic functions, differential operators and holonomic
functions. In addition, vectors and matrices of the above objects are
JACAL is written in Scheme. An IEEE P1178 and R4RS compliant version of
Scheme ("SCM") written in C is available with JACAL. SCM runs on Amiga,
Atari-ST, MS-DOS, NOS/VE, VMS, Unix and similar systems. SLIB is a portable
Scheme library used by JACAL. Get JACAL, SLIB and SCM sources via anonymous
FTP from either
nexus.yorku.ca in `/pub/scheme/new',
altdorf.ai.mit.edu in `/archive/scm' or
prep.ai.mit.edu in `/pub/gnu/jacal'.
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on tape, diskettes or CD-ROM yet. To
receive an IBM PC floppy disk with the source and executable files, send
84 Pleasant Street
Wakefield, MA 01880
make version 3.67 has just been released. It now supports
the popular `+=' syntax for appending more text to a variable's
make has come with a standard GNU
script since version 3.63. GNU
make complies fully with the
POSIX.2 standard, and also supports long options, parallel command
execution, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution and
powerful text manipulation functions. For those with no vendor-supplied
make utility at all, GNU
make now comes with a shell
script called `build.sh' to build
make the first time,
before you have any
make program to use.
Oleo is a spreadsheet program that can be run either as an X client or
using curses. Support has recently been added both for
and for generating embedded Postscript. Oleo still needs documentation.
If you would like to write a Texinfo manual for Oleo, contact Tom Lord,
firstname.lastname@example.org. Please send bug reports regarding
email@example.com. See "Contents of
Originally, each host on the Internet consisted of a single, reasonably
powerful computer, capable of handling many users at the same time.
Typically, a site (a physical location of computer users) would
have only one or two computers, even if they had 20 or more people who
used them. If a user at site A wanted to know about users logged on at
site B, a simple program could be invoked to query the host at site B
about the users who were logged on.
With the onset of desktop computing, the mainframe has been set aside.
A modern computing facility usually consists of one user per host and
many hosts per site. This makes it a trial to find out about logged-on
users at another site, since you must query each host to find out about
the single user who is logged on.
GNU Finger is a simple and effective way around this problem, and serves
as a direct replacement for existing finger programs. For sites with
many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger server
host. This host collects information about who is logged on to other
hosts at that site. If a user at site A wants to know about users
logged on at site B, only the server host need be queried, instead of
each host at that site. This is very convenient. (See "Contents of
the Utilities Tape".)
The current version of Ghostscript is 2.6.1. New features include the
ability to use the fonts provided by the platform on which Ghostscript
runs (X Window System and Microsoft Windows), resulting in much
better-looking screen displays; improved text file printing (like
enscript); a utility to extract the text from a Postscript
document; a much more reliable (and faster) Microsoft Windows
implementation; support for Microsoft C/C++ 7.0; drivers for many
new printers, including the SPARCprinter, and for TIFF/F (fax) file
format; many more Postscript Level 2 facilities, including most of the
color space facilities (but not patterns), and the ability to switch
between Level 1 and Level 2 dynamically.
Ghostscript accepts commands in Postscript and executes them by writing
directly to a printer, drawing on an X window or writing to a file that
you can print later (or to a bitmap file that you can manipulate with
other graphics programs). Tim Theisen,
firstname.lastname@example.org, has created Ghostview, a previewer
for multi-page files that runs on top of Ghostscript. Russell Lang,
email@example.com, has created Ghostview for
Windows, a similar previewer that runs on Microsoft Windows.
Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs
that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also supports
IBM PCs and compatibles with EGA, VGA or SuperVGA graphics (but please do
not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use PCs).
The next planned Ghostscript release will be 3.0, available in the first
quarter of 1994. It will implement the full Postscript Level 2
GNU Smalltalk implements the traditional features of the Smalltalk
language, but not the graphics and window features. Recently someone
implemented these and they will appear in a future release.
James Clark has completed
troff and related
programs). Written in C++, they can be compiled with GNU C++
Version 2.3 or later.
groff will be fixed, but no major new developments are
currently planned. However,
groff users are encouraged to
continue to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo
grap emulation (a
pic preprocessor for
typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to
(see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2) and an ASCII output
pic so that
pic can be integrated with Texinfo.
Thanks to all those who have contributed bug reports.
The Texinfo 3 package includes an enhanced Texinfo mode for GNU Emacs,
new versions of the formatting utilities, and the second edition of the
Texinfo Manual. This edition is more thorough and describes over
50 new commands. Texinfo mode now includes commands for automatically
creating and updating nodes and menus, a tedious task when done by hand.
makeinfo, a standalone formatter, and
info, a standalone
Info reader are included. Both are written in C and are independent of
GNU Chess is a program that plays chess with you. The program is
written entirely in the C language and has been ported to the PC, the
Cray-2 and numerous other machines. It has also been ported to other
operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS, though these
versions are not being supported by the maintainer.
GNU Chess implements many specialized features including the null move
heuristic, a hash table with aging, the history heuristic (another form
of the earlier killer heuristic), caching of static evaluations, and a
sophisticated database which lets the program play the first several
moves in the game quickly and so forth.
GNU Chess won the Uniform Platform event held in August 1992 in London,
England. Nine programs competed, running on identical hardware.
GNU Chess is primarily supported by Stuart Cracraft on behalf of FSF.
P.O. Box 2841
Laguna Hills, CA
Phone: (714) 770-8532
GNU Shogi and its protege GNU XShogi play the Japanese version of Chess
known as "Shogi". The major difference from Western Chess is that captured
pieces can be returned into play.
The latter is the X windows front end for GNU Shogi.
The former is the brain/engine which actually plays Shogi.
The programs are written entirely in the C language. GNU Shogi has been
created by modifying GNU Chess. GNU Shogi implements the same features as
GNU Chess and uses similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences of
partial board patterns can be introduced in order to help the program
playing a good order of moves towards specific opening patterns. GNU
XShogi is a modification of XBoard.
Universitaet Passau, FMI
Although we do not yet have a complete GNU system, it is already
possible for you to begin porting it. This is because the unfinished
part, the Hurd, is basically portable. The parts of the system that
really need porting are Mach and the GNU C Library, which are already
available to port and use.
GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use on-line and printed
GNU manuals are intended to explain the underlying concepts, describe
how to use all the features of each program, and give examples of
command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which
yield both typeset hardcopy and on-line hypertext-like display via the
menu-driven Info system. These manuals, source for which is provided
with our software, are also available in hardcopy; see the "Free
Software Foundation Order Form."
Several GNU manuals are now bound as soft cover books with a new
lay-flat binding technology. This allows you to open them so they
lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. Each book has an
inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or
crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the
Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Texinfo, GAWK,
Make, GDB, Bison and Flex
manuals have this binding. All other GNU manuals are also bound so they
lie flat when opened, using other technologies.
The Emacs Manual describes editing with GNU Emacs. The new 8th
edition has been updated for Emacs 19. It also explains advanced
features, such as outline mode and regular expression search, how to use
special modes for programming in languages like C++ and TeX, how
to use the
tags utility, how to compile and correct code, and how
to make your own keybindings and other elementary customizations.
The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual covers this programming
language in great depth, including data types, control structures,
functions, macros, syntax tables, searching and matching, modes,
windows, keymaps, markers, byte compilation and the operating system
The Texinfo Manual explains the markup language used to generate
both the online Info documentation and typeset hardcopies. It tells you
how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references,
how to use Texinfo mode in GNU Emacs and how to catch mistakes.
The GAWK Manual describes how to use the GNU implementation of
awk. It is written for someone who has never used
describes all the features of this powerful string and record
The Make Manual describes GNU
make, a program used to
rebuild parts of other programs. The manual tells how to write
makefiles, which specify how a program is to be compiled and how
its files depend on each other. The new edition of the manual describes
the new features in
make version 3.64, and includes a new
introductory chapter for novice users, as well as a new section on
automatically generated dependencies.
Debugging with GDB explains how to use the GNU Debugger, run your
program under debugger control, examine and alter data, modify the flow
of control within the program and use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The Bison Manual teaches you how to write context-free grammars
for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no
prior knowledge of parser generators.
The Flex Manual tells you how to write a lexical scanner
definition for the
flex program to create a C-coded scanner that
will recognize the patterns described. You need no prior knowledge of
Using and Porting GNU CC explains how to run, install and port
the GNU C compiler. Currently, we are distributing two versions of GCC,
version 1 and version 2, each documented by a different edition of the
The Termcap Manual, often described as "Twice as much as you
ever wanted to know about Termcap," details the format of the Termcap
database, the definitions of terminal capabilities and the process of
interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for
The Emacs Calc Manual includes both a tutorial and a reference
manual for Calc. It describes how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use
Calc for algebra, calculus and other forms of mathematics, and how to
The C Library Reference Manual describes almost all of the
facilities of the GNU C library, including both what Unix calls
"library functions" and "system calls." We are doing limited print
runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. It is new, and we
would like corrections and improvements. Please send them to
GNU Software Available Now
We offer Unix software source distributions tapes in
on the following media:
1600bpi 9-track reel tape
8mm Exabyte cartridges
Sun QIC-24 cartridges (readable on some other systems)
Hewlett-Packard 16-track cartridges
IBM RS/6000 QIC-150 cartridges (readable on some other systems) (the
RS/6000 Emacs tape has an Emacs binary as well)
We also offer:
CD-ROM (see "GNU Source Code CD-ROM")
MS-DOS diskettes with some GNU software (see "MS-DOS Distribution")
VMS tapes (which include sources and executables) for GNU Emacs and the
GNU C compiler (see "VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes")
The contents of the various 9-track and cartridge tapes for Unix systems
are the same (except for the RS/6000 Emacs tape, which also has
executables); only the media are different (see the "Free Software
Foundation Order Form"). Source code for the manuals comes in Texinfo
format. We welcome all bug reports.
Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed with
make them fit. Refer to the top-level `README' file at the
beginning of each tape for instructions on uncompressing them.
unpack do not work!
Version numbers listed after program names were current at the time this
Bulletin was published. When you order a distribution tape, some of the
programs might be newer, and therefore the version number higher.
Contents of the Emacs Tape
GNU Emacs 18.59
In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible,
customizable real-time display editor. GNU Emacs is his second
implementation. It offers true Lisp--smoothly integrated into the
editor--for writing extensions, and provides an interface to MIT's X
Window System. In addition to its powerful native command set,
extensions which emulate other popular editors are distributed: vi, EDT
(DEC's VMS editor) and Gosling (aka Unipress) Emacs. It has many other
features, which make it a full computing support environment. It is
described by the GNU Emacs Manual, the GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual and a reference card. Source for all three come with
GNU Emacs 18.59 runs on many Unix systems (arranged by hardware):
Alliant FX/80 & FX/2800, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), Apollo, AT&T (3Bs &
7300 PC), DG Aviion, Bull DPX/2 (2nn & 3nn) CCI 5/32 & 6/32, Celerity,
Convex, Digital (DECstation 3100 & 5000 (PMAXes), Mips, VAX (BSD, System
V & VMS)), Motorola Delta 147 & 187 Dual, Elxsi 6400, Encore (DPC, APC
& XPC), Gould, HP (9000 series 200, 300, 700 & 800, but not series
500), HLH Orion (original & 1/05), IBM (RS/6000 (AIX), RT/PC (4.2 &
AIX) & PS/2 (AIX (386 only))), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Intel 860 &
80386 (BSD, Esix, SVR3, SVR4, SCO, ISC, IX, AIX & others (for MS-DOS
see "MS-DOS Distribution" & "Free Software for Microcomputers")),
Iris (2500, 2500 Turbo & 4D), Masscomp, MIPS, National Semiconductor
32000, NeXT (Mach), NCR Tower 32 (SVR2 & SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu
(TI & LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime EXL, Pyramid (original & MIPS), Sequent
(Balance & Symmetry), SONY News (m68k & MIPS), Stride (system release
2), all Suns (including 386i), all SunOS & some Solaris versions,
Tadpole, Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix (16000 & 4300), Triton
88, Ustation E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1) & Wicat.
Arranged by operating system: AIX (RS/6000, RT/PC, 386-PS/2), BSD
(versions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3), DomainOS, Esix (386), HP-UX (HP 9000 series
200, 300, 700 & 800 but not series 500), ISC (386), IX (386), Mach,
Microport, NewsOS (Sony m68k & MIPS) SCO (386), SVR0 (Vax & AT&T 3Bs),
SVR2, SVR3, SVR4, Solaris 2.0, SunOS, UTS (Amdahl), Ultrix (versions
3.0, 4,1), Uniplus 5.2 (Dual machines), VMS (versions 4.0, 4.2, 4.4,
5,5) & Xenix (386).
GNU Emacs 19.8
Version 19 is in beta-release. Unlike some other recent derivations of
Emacs, GNU Emacs 19 continues to work on character-only terminals as
well as under the X Window System. New features in Emacs 19 include:
Emacs 19 has been tested on these machines: Sun SPARCstation (running
SunOS 4.1.1, 4.1.2 & 4.1.3 and Solaris 1.0 & 1.1), DECstation (running
Ultrix), IBM RS/6000 (running AIX 3.2), HP 9000/300 (running 4.3 BSD),
Motorola Delta SysV68 on mvme147 (running system V r3v7) &
IBM-compatibles using an 80386 or 80486 (running Linux 0.99.9, Esix
System V Release 4.0.4 or SCO 3.2v4 (with ODT, SCO's version of X)).
Other configurations supported by Emacs 18 should work with few
adjustments; as users tell us more about their experiences with
different systems, we will augment the list.
- multiple X windows ("frames" to Emacs), with a separate X window
for the minibuffer or with a minibuffer attached to each X window
- associating property lists with regions of text in a buffer
- multiple fonts and colors defined by those properties
- simplified and improved processing of function keys, mouse clicks
and mouse movement
- X selection processing, including CLIPBOARD selections
- hooks to be run if point or mouse moves outside a certain range
- menu bars and popup menus defined by keymaps
- static menu bars
- before and after change hooks
- source-level debugging of Emacs Lisp programs
- support for European character sets
- floating point numbers
- improved buffer allocation, using a new mechanism capable of
returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed
- interfacing with the X resource manager
- support for the GNU configuration scheme
- good RCS support
- many updated libraries
GNU Calc 2.02
Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible,
advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU
Emacs. It comes with source for the Calc Manual and reference
card, which serves as a tutorial and reference. If you wish, you can
use Calc just as a simple four-function calculator, but it provides
additional features including choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based)
entry, logarithmic functions, trigonometric and financial functions,
arbitrary precision, complex numbers, vectors, matrices, dates, times,
infinities, sets, algebraic simplification, differentiation and
CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll.
It mostly supports the Common Lisp described by Common LISP: The
Language (1st edition). CLISP includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler
and, for some machines, a screen editor. CLISP needs only 1.5 MB of
memory and runs on many microcomputers (including the Atari ST, Amiga
500-2000, most MS-DOS systems & OS/2) and on some Unix workstations
(Linux, SunOS (SPARC), Sun-386i, HP-UX (HP 9000/800) & others).
PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common Lisp
Object System. PCL was written by Xerox Corporation.
Some of the contents of our tape and FTP distributions are compressed. We
have software on our tapes and FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to
patent troubles with
compress, we have switched to another
gzip can expand LZW-compressed
files but uses a different algorithm for compression which generally
produces better results. It also uncompresses files compressed with System
make supports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure
features of the BSD and System V versions of
make, as well as
many of our own extensions. GNU extensions include long options,
parallel compilation, conditional execution and functions for text
manipulation. Source for the Make Manual comes with the program.
make is on several of our tapes because some native
make programs lack the
VPATH feature essential for using
the GNU configure system to its full extent. A script is included to
make on such systems.
Texinfo is a set of utilities which generate printed manuals and online
hypertext-style documentation (called "Info"), and provide means for
reading the online versions. Version 3 contains both GNU Emacs Lisp and
standalone C programs, as well as source for the Texinfo Manual.
Texinfo is distributed on several of the tapes to insure that it is
possible to rebuild and read Info files for various programs.
Contents of the Scheme Tape
This tape contains MIT Scheme 7.1. Scheme is a simplified,
lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was designed at MIT and other
universities to teach students the art of programming, and to research
new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques. The
current version conforms to the
"Revised^4 Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme"
(MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source is included.
MIT Scheme is written in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap.
Binaries which can be used to bootstrap Scheme are available for the
- HP 9000 series 300, 400, 700 and 800 running HP-UX 7.0 or 8.0
- NeXT running NeXT OS 1.0 or 2.0
- Sun-3 or Sun-4 running SunOS 4.1
- DECstation 3100/5100 running Ultrix 4.0
- Sony NWS-3250 running NEWS OS 5.01
- Vax running 4.3 BSD
If your system is not on this list and you don't enjoy the bootstrap
challenge, see the "JACAL" entry in the "Project GNU Status Report."
Contents of the Languages Tape
This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters and related
programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).
The GNU C compiler is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs
automatic register allocation, common sub-expression elimination, invariant
code motion from loops, induction variable optimizations, constant
propagation and copy propagation, delayed popping of function call
arguments, tail recursion elimination, integration of inline functions and
frame pointer elimination, plus many local optimizations that are
automatically deduced from the machine description.
GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C and GNU C extensions. It generates
good code for the 32000, m68k, 80386, Alliant, Convex, Tahoe & VAX CPUs,
and for these RISC CPUs: i860, Pyramid, SPARC & SPUR. The MIPS RISC CPU is
also supported. Other supported systems include (arranged by hardware):
386 (AIX), Alliant FX/8, Altos 3068, Apollo 68000/68020 (Aegis), AT&T 3B1,
Convex C1 & C2, DECstation 3100 & 5000, DEC VAX, Encore MultiMax (NS32000),
Genix NS32000, Harris HCX-7 & HCX-9, HP-UX 68000/68020, HP 9000 series 200
& 300 (BSD), IBM PS/2 (AIX), Intel 386 (System V, Xenix, BSD, but not
MS-DOS (but see "MS-DOS Distribution" & "Free Software for
Microcomputers")), Iris MIPS machine, ISI 68000/68020, MIPS, NeXT, Pyramid
(original), Sequent Balance (NS32000) and Symmetry (i386), SONY News, Sun
(2, 3 (optionally with FPA), 4, SPARCstation & Sun-386i).
Arranged by operating system: AIX (i386-PS/2), BSD (Alliant FX/8, Apollo,
Convex, HP m68k (series 200 & 300), i386, ISI m68k, MIPS, Pyramid
(original), Sequent (Balance & Symmetry), Genix (NS32000), HP-UX (m68k),
Irix (Iris MIPS), Mach (NeXT m68k), NewsOS (Sony m68k), SunOS (Sun-2,
Sun-3, Sun-4, SPARC & Sun-386i), System V (i386, Altos 3068, AT&T 3B1),
Ultrix (DECstation 3100 & 5000, VAX), Umax (Encore NS32000) and Xenix
Source for the GCC manual, Using and Porting GNU CC, is included
with the compiler. The manual describes how to run and install the GNU C
compiler, and how to port it to new systems. It describes new features and
incompatibilities of the compiler, but people not familiar with C will also
need a good reference on the C programming language.
G++ is a set of changes for GCC version 1 which supports C++. As
far as possible, G++ is kept compatible with the evolving draft ANSI
standard, but not with
cfront (the AT&T compiler), as
has been diverging from ANSI. G++ 1 comes with source for the
GNU G++ User's Guide (not yet published on paper). G++
compiles source quickly, provides good error messages and works well with
GDB. Each release of G++ 1 depends on the same numbered release of GCC
1 (in GCC version 2, G++ is merged with GCC).
The GNU C++ library, libg++, is an extensive collection of C++
classes and support tools for use with G++.
Partial documentation in Texinfo format is included (not yet published on
NIH Class Library 3.0
The NIH Class Library (formerly known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented Program
Support) is a portable collection of G++ classes, similar to those in
Smalltalk-80, which has been developed by Keith Gorlen of the National
Institutes of Health (NIH), using the C++ programming language.
The BFD (Binary File Descriptor) library allows a program which operates on
object files (such as
ld or GDB) to support many different formats
in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs
to know the actual details of a particular format. One consequence of this
design is that all of programs using BFD will support formats such as
a.out, COFF, ELF and ROSE. BFD comes with documentation in Texinfo form.
In GDB 4, object files and symbol tables are now read via the BFD library,
which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs of multiple object file
types such as a.out and COFF. Other features include improvements to the
command language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and
watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression
changes). Exception handling, SunOS shared libraries and C++ multiple
inheritance are only supported when used with GCC version 2.
GDB now uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library. So far,
the library contains simulators for the Zilog Z8001/2, the Hitachi H8/300,
H8/500 and Super-H.
GDB 4 can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB 4 targets a
platform means that it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To
say that GDB 4 can host a given platform means that it can be built
on it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs. GDB 4 can:
In addition, GDB 4 can use the symbol tables emitted by the compilers
supplied by most vendors of MIPS-based machines, including DEC. (These
symbol tables are in a format which almost nobody else uses.) Source for
the manual Debugging with GDB and a reference card are included.
- target & host: Amiga 3000 (Amix), DECstation 3100
& 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD), IBM RS/6000 (AIX), i386 (BSD, SCO &
Linux), Motorola Delta m88k (System V), NCR 3000 (SVR4), SGI Iris (MIPS
running Irix V3 & V4), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), Sun-3 & SPARC (SunOS 4.1 &
Solaris 2.0) & Ultracomputer (29K running Sym1).
- target, but not host: i960 Nindy, AMD
29000 (COFF & a.out), Fujitsu SPARClite, Hitachi H8/300, m68k & m68332.
- host, but not target: Intel 386 (Mach), IBM
RT/PC (AIX) & HP/Apollo 68k (BSD).
ae works with GCC to produce more complete profiling information.
The binutils include
strip. The GNU linker
fast, and is the only linker which emits source-line numbered error
messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references.
Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
yacc, with more features. Bison Manual and reference card
sources are included.
The entire suite of GNU software tools can be run on System V, replacing
COFF entirely. The GNU tools can operate on BSD object files with a COFF
header the System V kernel will accept.
robotussin is supplied for
converting standard libraries to this format. However, this workaround is
becoming obsolete, as it is being replaced by BFD (see "Project GNU Status
Report" and "Contents of the Languages Tape").
expect 4.5.2 alpha and Tcl 6.7
DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs. Its purpose is to
provide a single front end for all tests. The flexibility and consistency
of the DejaGnu framework make it easy to write tests for any program.
expect (which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with programs) and Tcl
(an embeddable tool command language) are both provided in this package,
since DejaGnu uses them and they are useful programs in their own right.
dld is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your
program with the
dld library allows you to dynamically load object
files into the running binary.
f2c converts Fortran--77 source files into C or C++, which can
then be compiled with GCC.
flex is a mostly-compatible replacement for the
generator, written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
flex generates far more efficient scanners than
Sources for the Flex Manual and reference card are included.
The GNU assembler (GAS) is a fairly portable, one pass assembler that is
almost twice as fast as Unix
as and works for 32x32, m68k, 80386,
SPARC (Sun-4) & VAX.
GAWK is upwardly compatible with the System V Release 4 version of
awk. Source for the GAWK Manual comes with the software.
gdbm library is the GNU replacement for the traditional
ndbm libraries, which implement a database using
quick lookup by hashing.
gdbm supports both styles but does not
need sparse database formats (unlike its Unix counterparts).
GNU MP (
gmp) is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic,
operating on signed integers and rational numbers. It has a rich set of
functions, all with a regular interface.
gperf is a "perfect" hash-table generation utility. There are
actually two implementations of
gperf, one written in C and one in
C++. Both will produce hash functions in either C or C++.
indent is the GNU-modified version of the freely-redistributable BSD
program of the same name. It formats C source according to GNU coding
standards by default, though the original default and other formats are
available as options.
p2c is a Pascal-to-C translator written by Dave Gillespie. It is
intended primarily for use on 32-bit machines, though porting it to convert
code to work on 16-bit machines may be possible.
Larry Wall has written a fast interpreter named
perl which combines
the features and capabilities of
sh and C,
as well as interfaces to all the system calls and many C library routines.
Perl Mode for editing
perl code comes with GNU Emacs 19.
The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for
internationalization features. It has been included in many GNU programs
which use regex routines. Now it is finally available separately.
GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language system
written in portable C. Features include an incremental garbage collector,
a binary image save capability, the ability to invoke user-written C code
and pass parameters to it, a GNU Emacs editing mode, optional byte-code
compilation tracing and byte-code execution tracing and automatically
loaded per-user initialization files.
Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive
generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for a
given function. You provide the superoptimizer a function and a CPU to
generate code for, and how many instructions you can accept. The GNU
superoptimizer and its application in GCC is described in the ACM
SIGPLAN PLDI'92 proceedings. Superopt supports: SPARC, m68000, m68020,
m88000, IBM RS/6000, AMD 29000, Intel 80x86 & Pyramid.
Tile Forth 2.1
Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth--83 standard written in
C, thus allowing it to be easily moved between different computers
(traditionally, Forth implementations are written in assembly to utilize
the underlying architecture as optimally as possible, but this also makes
them less portable).
gzip 1.0.7 and
See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these
Contents of the Utilities Tape
This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities and miscellaneous
applications not available on the other GNU tapes.
Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source code
packages. These scripts adapt the packages to many kinds of Unix-like
systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a script for a
package from a template file which lists the operating system features
which the package can use, in the form of
m4 macro calls. Many GNU
programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.
BASH 1.12 and readline
The GNU shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with
sh and offers many extensions found in
ksh. BASH has job control,
csh-style command history and
command-line editing (with Emacs and
vi modes built-in and the
ability to rebind keys) via the readline library.
bc is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision.
bc was implemented from the POSIX 1003.2 draft standard, but it
has several extensions including multi-character variable names, an
else statement and full Boolean expressions.
cpio is an alternative archive program with all the features of SVR4
cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1
The Concurrent Version System, CVS, manages software revision and release
control in a multi-developer, multi-directory, multi-group environment. It
works best in conjunction with RCS versions 4 and above, but will parse
older RCS formats with the loss of CVS's fancier features. See Berliner,
Brian, "CVS-II: Parallelizing Software Development," Proceedings of
the Winter 1990 USENIX Association Conference.
dc is an RPN calculator. GNU
bc does not require a separate
dc program to run. This version of
dc will eventually be
merged with the
diff compares files showing line-by-line changes in several
flexible formats. It is much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
The "diffutils" distribution contains
This program is intended as a utility to help software developers ensure
that their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with
14-character filenames and on MS-DOS with 11 character filenames.
elvis is a clone of the
ex Unix editor. It
supports nearly all of the
ex commands in both visual and
elvis runs under BSD, System V, Xenix, Minix, MS-DOS and
Atari TOS, and should be easy to port to many other systems.
This is an extensible shell based on
rc but with more features
including first class functions, lexical scope, an exception system and
rich return values (i.e. functions can return values other than just
rc, it is great for both interactive use and for
scripting, particularly because its quoting rules are much less baroque
than the C or Bourne shells.
Fax is the freely-available MIT AI Lab fax spooling system, which provides
Group 3 fax transmission and reception services for a networked Unix
system. It requires a faxmodem which conforms to the new EIA-592
Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control Standard, Service Class 2.
find is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to
find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations on
locate are also included.
GNU Finger works on a wide variety of systems. For more information, see
the "Project GNU Status Report."
The "fontutils" can create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX,
starting with a scanned type image and converting the bitmaps to outlines.
They also contain general conversion programs and other utilities.
Gnats (GNats: A Tracking System) is a bug-tracking system.
It is based upon the paradigm of a central site or organization which
receives problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic
mail. Although it's been used primarily as a software bug-tracking system
so far, it is sufficiently generalized so that it could be used for
handling system administration issues, project management or any number of
Fun and Games:
acm 2.4, MandelSpawn 0.06, GNU Chess 4.0.pl61,
NetHack 3.1, GnuGo 1.1, GNU Shogi 1.1.pl01 and
acm is a LAN-oriented, multiplayer aerial combat simulation that
runs under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat
against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. Eventually we
hope to turn this into a more general purpose flight simulator.
MandelSpawn is a parallel Mandelbrot program for the MIT X Window System.
GNU Chess and GNU Shogi have text and X display interfaces (see "Project
GNU Status Report"). NetHack is a display-oriented adventure game similar
to Rogue. GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); it is not yet very
sophisticated. GNU Shogi plays a Japanese game, similar to Chess, known as
"Shogi". A major difference from Western Chess is that captured pieces
can be returned into play.
hello program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It
allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would
otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU
General Public License, users are free to share and change it.
Ghostscript 2.6.1 and Ghostview 1.4.1
Ghostscript is GNU's graphics language which is almost fully compatible
with Postscript (see "Project GNU Status Report"). Ghostview provides an
X11 user interface for the Ghostscript interpreter. Ghostview and
Ghostscript function as two cooperating programs; Ghostview creates a
viewing window and Ghostscript draws in it.
gnuplot is an interactive program for plotting mathematical
expressions and data. Curiously, the program was neither written nor named
for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence.
See the entry on GNU Graphics in "Contents of the Experimental Tape" for
information on a related program.
gptx is the GNU version of
ptx, a permuted index generator.
Among other things, it produces readable "KWIC" (KeyWords In Context)
indexes without the need of
nroff and there is an option to output
[ef]grep programs are GNU's versions of the Unix programs of the
same name. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
groff 1.08 and
groff is a document formatting system, which includes
as well as drivers for Postscript, TeX dvi format and typewriter-like
devices. Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley
macros and an enhanced version of the X11
mgm is a macro package for
groff. It is almost compatible
with the DWB
mm macros and has several extensions.
less is a display paginator similar to
with various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) which most
m4 is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor.
It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (for example,
handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros).
m4 also has
built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing
mtools is a set of public domain programs to allow Unix systems to read,
write and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (usually a diskette).
patch is our version of Larry Wall's program to take
output and apply those differences to an original file to generate the
The Revision Control System, RCS, is used for version control and
management of software projects. When used with GNU
diff, RCS can
handle binary files (executables, object files, 8-bit data, etc).
rc is a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than
csh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells.
It's intended to be used interactively, but is great for writing scripts as
recode converts between character sets and usages. When exact
transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of offending characters
or fall back on approximations. It recognizes or produces more than a
dozen character sets and can convert each set to almost any other one.
recode pays special attention to superimposition of diacritics,
particularly for French.
screen is a terminal multiplexor that runs several independent
"screens" (ttys) on a single physical terminal. Each virtual terminal
emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ANSI X3.64 and ISO 2022 functions.
screen sessions can be detached and resumed later on a different
sed is a stream-oriented version of
ed. It is used copiously
in shell scripts.
tar includes multivolume support, the ability to archive sparse
files, automatic archive compression/decompression, remote archives and
special features that allow
tar to be used for incremental and full
backups. Unfortunately GNU
tar implements an early draft of the
ustar standard which is different from the final
standard. Adding support for the new changes in a backward-compatible
fashion is not trivial.
The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on
any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap
entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is source for the
Termcap Manual in Texinfo format.
time is used to report statistics (usually from a shell) about the
amount of user, system and real time used by a process.
tput is a portable way to allow shell scripts to use special
terminal capabilities. GNU
tput uses the Termcap database, rather
than Terminfo as most implementations do.
This version of UUCP was written by Ian Lance Taylor, and is the standard
UUCP system for GNU. It currently supports the
g (in all
window and packet sizes),
e protocols, as
well a Zmodem protocol and two new bidirectional protocols. If you have a
Berkeley sockets library, it can make TCP connections. If you have TLI
libraries, it can make TLI connections.
wdiff compares two files, finding which words have been deleted or
added to the first in order to obtain the second. We hope eventually to
integrate it, as well as some ideas from a similar program called
spiff, into future releases of GNU
fileutils 3.6, shellutils 1.8 and textutils 1.6
The "fileutils" manipulate files:
The "shellutils" are small commands used on the command line or in shell
The "textutils" programs manipulate textual data:
gzip 1.0.7 and
See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these
Contents of the Experimental Tape
This tape includes software which is currently in beta test and is
available for people who are feeling adventurous. Some of the software
already has released versions on the distribution tapes. The contents of
this tape are transient; as the programs become stable, they will replace
older versions on other tapes. Please send bug reports to the address in
the notes for each program on the tape. Note that Emacs 19, in beta
test, is on the Emacs tape.
Version 2 of GCC is now reliable. In addition to the version 1 features,
GCC 2 has instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots,
leaf function optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, a
certain amount of common subexpression elimination (CSE) between basic
blocks (though not all of the supported machine descriptions provide for
scheduling or delay slots) and a feature for assigning attributes to
instructions. Function-wide CSE has been written, but needs to be cleaned
up before it can be installed. Position-independent code is supported on
the 68k, i386, Hitachi Slt, Hitachi H8/300, Clipper, 88k, SPARC &
GCC 2 can also open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type
long int). It supports extended floating point (type
on the 68k; other machines will follow. It can generate code for most of
the same machines as version 1, plus the following: AMD 29000, Acorn RISC,
DEC Alpha, Elxsi, HP-PA (700 & 800), IBM RS/6000, IBM RT/PC, Intel 80386,
Intel 960, Motorola 88000 & SPARC (running Solaris 2). Version 2 can
generate a.out, COFF, ELF & OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable
assembler. It can produce debugging information in several formats: BSD
stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs symbols & DWARF.
Not all of the version 1 machine descriptions have been updated yet; some
do not work, and others need work to take full advantage of instruction
scheduling and delay slots. The old machine descriptions for the Alliant,
Tahoe and Spur (as well as a new port for the Tron) do not work, but are
still included in the distribution in case someone wants to work on them.
Using the new configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as
easy as building a compiler for the same target machine. Version 2
supports more general calling conventions: it can pass arguments "by
reference" and can preallocate the space for stack arguments. GCC 2 on
the SPARC uses the standard conventions for structure arguments and return
Version 2 of the compiler supports three languages: C, C++ and
Objective C; the source file name extension or a compiler option selects
the language. The front end support for Objective C was donated by NeXT.
The runtime support needed to run Objective C programs is now distributed
with GCC (this does not include any Objective C classes aside from
GNU C has been extended to support nested functions, nonlocal gotos and
taking the address of a label.
Texinfo source for the manual, Using and Porting GNU CC, is included.
Solaris binaries for GCC 2
Since the C compiler has been unbundled in Solaris, this tape temporarily
contains compiled binaries of GCC for Solaris systems in addition to the
sources. In the future, Solaris binaries will be available on separate
Version 2 of the binutils have been completely rewritten to use the BFD
library (see "Project GNU Status Report"). This version has been tested
on only a few architectures including Sun-3 and Sun-4 running SunOS 4.1,
and SONY News running NewsOS 3.
This version has not been ported to as many machines as the old binutils.
Some features of the old versions are missing. We would appreciate clean,
easy to integrate patches to make things run on other machines; especially
welcome are fixes for what used to work in the old versions.
Version 2 of the GNU assembler has been rewritten to use the BFD library
(see "Project GNU Status Report"). It supports these systems, though not
all have been thoroughly tested: SPARC (SunOS 4 & Solaris 2), i386, m68k,
MIPS (Ultrix, Irix), Hitachi H8/500 & VAX (VMS).
GNU C Library 1.06
The library supports ANSI C-1989 and POSIX 1003.1-1990 and has most of the
functions specified in POSIX 1003.2 draft 11.2. It is upward compatible
with 4.4 BSD and includes many System V functions, plus GNU extensions.
Version 1.06 uses a standard GNU
configure script and runs on Sun-3
(SunOS 4.1), Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1 & Solaris 2), HP 9000/300 & SONY News 800
(4.3 BSD), MIPS DECstation (Ultrix 4), i386/i486 (System V, SVR4, BSD,
386BSD, NetBSD, SCO 3.2 & SCO ODT 2.0) & Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3).
Source for the new GNU C Library Reference Manual is included.
This is the GNU C++ library for GCC version 2 (see "Contents of
Languages Tape" for more info regarding libg++). The latest version
tries to configure itself automatically, thus working out of the box on
many hosts. Recent changes include portability enhancements, some use of
templates and converting the iostream classes to use multiple inheritance.
Partial documentation in Texinfo format is included (not yet published on
GNU Graphics 0.17
GNU Graphics is a set of programs which produce plots from ASCII or binary
data. It supports output to Tektronix 4010, Postscript and the X Window
System or compatible devices. Improvements in this version include a
revised manual (not yet printed on paper); new features in
plot2ps; support for output in ln03 and TekniCAD
TDA file formats; a replacement for the
spline program; examples of
shell scripts using
plot; the addition of a
statistics toolkit; and the use of
configure for installation.
Existing ports need retesting. Contact Rich Murphey,
Rich@rice.edu, if you can help test/port it to anything beyond
Oleo is a spreadsheet program, that is better for you than the more
expensive spreadsheets. It supports the X Window System and
character-based terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of
spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are
configurable. Under X and in Postscript output, Oleo supports multiple,
variable width fonts.
Contents of the X11 Tapes
The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 5 of the MIT X Window System.
The first FSF tape contains all of the core software, documentation and
some contributed clients. We call this the "required" X tape since it is
necessary for running X or running GNU Emacs under X. The second,
"optional", FSF tape contains contributed libraries and other toolkits,
the Andrew User Interface System, games and other programs.
The X11 Required tape also contains all fixes and patches released to date.
We update this tape as new fizes and patches are released.
Berkeley Networking 2 Tape
The Berkeley "Net2" release contains the second 4.3 BSD distribution and
is newer than both 4.3 BSD-Tahoe and 4.3 BSD-Reno. It includes most of the
BSD software system except for a few utilities, some parts of the kernel
and some library routines which your own C library is likely to provide (we
have replacements on other tapes for many of the missing programs). This
release also contains third party software including Kerberos and some GNU
VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes
We offer two VMS tapes. One has just the GNU Emacs editor. The other has
the GNU C compiler, Bison (to compile GCC), GAS (to assemble GCC's output)
and some library and include files. We are not aware of a GDB port for
VMS. Both VMS tapes have executables from which you can bootstrap, as the
DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC. Please do not ask us to devote
effort to VMS support, because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.
Tape Subscription Service
The FSF has a tape subscription service. If you do not have net access,
the subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest FSF
developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three tapes, we will mail
you four new versions of the tape of your choice over the course of the
Every quarter, we will send you a new version of an Emacs, Languages,
Utilities, Experimental or MIT X Window System Required tape. The BSD
Net-2, MIT Scheme and the MIT X Window System Optional tapes are not
changed often enough to warrant quarterly updates.
Since Emacs 19 is now on the Emacs Tape, a subscription will be a
convenient way to keep current with Emacs 19 updates as it moves through
A subscription is also an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to
the MIT X Window System. We update the X11 Required tape, as fixes and
patches for the X Window System are issued throughout the year.
See section "Subscriptions" in the "Free Software Foundation Order
How to Get GNU Software
All the software and publications from Free Software Foundation are
distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. The easiest way to
get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it.
You can get GNU software direct from the FSF by ordering diskettes, a tape
or a CD-ROM. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff, so
please support us by ordering if you can. See the "Free Software
Foundation Order Form".
There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not
work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. For your
convenience we list some of them; see "Free Software for Microcomputers".
Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with
them in any way and is responsible for neither the currency of their
versions nor the swiftness of their responses.
If you have Internet access and cannot access one of the hosts below, you
can get the software via anonymous FTP from GNU's distribution host
prep.ai.mit.edu (the IP address is
more information, get file `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE'.
prep is a very busy host and only allows a limited number of FTP
logins at any given time. Please use another machine, if at all possible.
These TCP/IP Internet sites provide GNU software via anonymous FTP
anonymous, password: your
e-mail address, mode:
binary). Please try them before
archie.oz for ACSnet),
cc.utah.edu (VMS GNU Emacs),
ftp.uu.net (under `/packages/gnu').
Those on JANET can look under
You can get some GNU programs via UUCP. Ohio State University posts their
UUCP instructions regularly to newsgroup
USENET. These people will send you UUCP instructions via electronic mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org (Europe), email@example.com, acornrc!bob,
firstname.lastname@example.org (Japan), email@example.com,
For those without Internet access, see the section "Free Software
Support" for information on getting electronic mail and file transfer
GNU Source Code CD-ROM
The Free Software Foundation has produced its second CD-ROM. This CD-ROM
contains sources for all of the programs on the Emacs, Languages,
Utilities, Experimental, and the MIT X Required and Optional tapes. In
addition, the CD-ROM contains the sources for MULE 0.9.7 (see "Free
Software and GNU in Japan"); some packages ported to Intel 80386 and
80486-based machines running MS-DOS: Demacs, DJGPP 2.4 and MIT Scheme 7.2;
and a snapshot of the Emacs Lisp Archive at Ohio State University. (You
can get libraries in this archive by UUCP (ask
firstname.lastname@example.org for directions) or by anonymous FTP
The CD-ROM does not contain the contents of the MIT Scheme, VMS or
The version numbers of the software on the CD-ROM correspond to the version
numbers listed in "GNU Software Available Now."
The CD-ROM is in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only file
system on most operating systems. If your driver supports it you can mount
the CD-ROM with "Rock Ridge" extensions and it will look just like an
ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated and otherwise
mangled names that fit the vanilla ISO 9660 specifications.
You can build most of this software without needing to copy the sources off
the CD. It requires only enough free disk space for the object files and
the intermediate build targets. Except for the GCC binaries for
SPARCstations running Solaris 2.0 and the MS-DOS binaries, there are no
precompiled programs on this CD. You will need a C compiler (programs
which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source
for a bootstrapping program).
The CD costs $400 if you are buying it for a business or other
organization, or $100 if you are buying it for yourself.
- What do the individual and company prices mean?
The software on our disk is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it.
What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.
We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company
or other organization buys the disk, we charge $400. When an individual
buys the same disk, we charge just $100.
You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are
buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an
individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the
disk is really for the company, so please pay the company price and get
reimbursed for the company price. We won't try to check up on you--we use
the honor system--so please cooperate.
Buying CDs at the company price is especially helpful for the GNU project;
just 80 CDs at the company price will support an FSF programmer or tech
writer for a year.
- Why is there an individual price?
In the past, our distribution tapes have been ordered mainly by companies.
The CD at the price of $400 provides them with all of our software for a
much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different
tapes. To lower the price further would cut into the FSF's funds very
However, for individuals, $400 is too high a price; hardly anyone could
afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the
lower price of $100, but not do the same for companies.
The Deluxe Distribution
The Free Software Foundation has been repeatedly asked to create a package
that provides executables for all of our software. Usually we offer only
sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the
Deluxe Distribution includes copies of all our printed manuals and
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds
of different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU
Debugger, the complete MIT X Window System and the GNU utilities.
You may choose one of these machines and operating systems: HP 9000 series
200, 300, 700 or 800 (4.3 BSD or HP-UX); RS/6000 (AIX); SONY News 68k (4.3
BSD or NewsOS 4); Sun-3, Sun-4 or SPARC (SunOS 4 or Solaris). If your
machine or system is not listed, or if a specific program has not been
ported to that machine, please call the FSF office at the phone number
below or send e-mail to
We will supply the software on one of these media in Unix tar format: 1600
or 6250 bpi, 1/2 inch, reel to reel tape; Sun DC300XLP 1/4 inch cartridge,
QIC-24; HP 16 track DC600HC 1/4 inch cartridge; IBM RS/6000 1/4 inch
cartridge, QIC-150; Exabyte 8mm tape. If your computer cannot read any of
these, please call us.
The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C Compiler,
GNU C Library, GNU Debugger, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Make, Texinfo
and Termcap manuals; six copies of the manual for GNU Emacs; and a packet
of reference cards each for GNU Emacs, Calc, the GNU Debugger, Bison and
In addition to the printed and on-line documentation, every Deluxe
Distribution includes a CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge
extensions) that contains sources of our software.
The Deluxe Distribution costs $5000. This package is for people who want
to get everything compiled for them or who want to make a purchase that
helps the FSF in a large way. To order the package, please fill out the
"Free Software Foundation Order Form", and send it to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
675 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139-3309
Phone: (617) 876-3296
Electronic mail: email@example.com
FSF distributes, on 3.5 inch 1.44MB diskettes, some of the GNU software
that has been ported to MS-DOS. The disks have both sources and
Contents of the Demacs diskettes
Demacs is a version of GNU Emacs 18.55 ported to MS-DOS, with some changes
from Emacs 18.57. Two versions are actually included--one which handles
8-bit character sets, and one, based on Nemacs, which handles 16-bit
character sets, including Kanji. FSF distributes it on five diskettes.
Demacs runs on Intel 80386 and 80486--based machines running MS-DOS. It is
compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but not with Microsoft
Windows extended mode or other DPMI managers.
Contents of the DJGPP diskettes
DJGPP is a complete port of GCC, libraries, development utilities and a
symbolic debugger, for Intel 80386 and 80486--based machines running
MS-DOS. FSF distributes it on four diskettes.
DJGPP requires at least 5MB of hard disk space to install, and 512K of RAM
to use. It is compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but not with
Microsoft Windows extended mode or other DPMI managers. It cannot emulate
multitasking (e.g. the Unix
fork system call) or signals.
Contents of the Selected Utilities diskettes
The GNUish MS-DOS Project releases GNU software ported to PC compatibles.
In general, this software will run on 8086 and 80286--based machines; an
80386 is not required. Some of these utilities are necessarily missing
features. FSF distributes it on a set of diskettes.
We are distributing these utilities, both source and executables: RCS,
Contents of the Windows diskette
We are distributing versions of GNU Chess and
gnuplot ported to
Microsoft Windows, on a single diskette, containing both source and
Free Software for Microcomputers
We do not provide support for GNU software on microcomputers because it is
peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are distributing a few such
programs on tape, CD-ROM and diskette. We are also willing to publish
information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are
aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal
addresses, archive sites and mailing lists, to either address on the front
See "MS-DOS Distribution" for more information about microcomputer
software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other
software. The FSF does not maintain any of it and has no
GNU Software not on Apple computers
In lawsuits, Apple claims the power to stop people from writing any program
that has a user interface that works even vaguely like the Macintosh's. If
Apple wins in the courts, it will create for itself a new power over the
public that will enable it to put an end to free software. So long as
Apple is committed to establishing this kind of monopoly, we will not
provide any support or software for Apple machines. We ask that you too
refrain from developing for or porting to Apple systems, since any more
software adds to their business. Don't feed the lawyer that bites you!
Boston Computer Society
The BCS has thousands of shareware and free programs for microcomputers,
including some GNU programs. Contact them to see what is available for
Boston Computer Society
1 Kendall Square, Bldg 1400,
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 252-0600
GNU Software on the Amiga
Get Amiga ports of many GNU programs using anonymous FTP from host
ftp.funet.fi in `/pub/amiga/gnu' (Europe).
For info on (or offers to help with) the GCC port and related projects, ask
firstname.lastname@example.org. For info on the GNU
Emacs port, ask David Gay,
Mark D. Henning,
email@example.com. You can get more info
via anonymous FTP in
GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix
Get Atari ports by anonymous FTP from
(maintained by Howard Chu,
are discussed on USENET in
GNU C/C++ 2.2.2 for OS/2 2.0
Michael Johnson has completed a new, completely stand-alone port of the GNU
C/C++ Version 2.2.2 compiler for OS/2 2.0. It has the C/C++
compilers, the GNU assembler, documentation & both OS/2-specific and
the BSD C libraries. You can get it from host
in file `/pub/os2/2.0/programming/gcc2-222' by FTP. To join the
mailing list, send a message to
Linux: a free Unix system for 386 machines
Linux (named after its author, Linus Torvalds, and Minix) is a free Unix
clone which implements a subset of System V and POSIX functionality. Linux
has been written from scratch and does not contain any proprietary code.
Many of the utilities and libraries are GNU Project software. Linux runs
only on 386/486 AT-bus (and some EISA-bus) machines. Porting to non-Intel
architectures is hard because the kernel makes extensive use of 386 memory
management and task primitives. Linux is freely distributable and
available via anonymous FTP:
tsx-11.mit.edu in `/pub/linux' (USA),
nic.funet.fi in `/pub/OS/Linux' (Europe). Ask
firstname.lastname@example.org about their mailing
lists. See USENET newsgroup
comp.os.linux for Linux
William F. Jolitz et al. have written a 386 port of BSD Unix. This
kernel is said to be free of AT&T code and is freely redistributable. You
can obtain more information from
This is the result of the work described in the Dr. Dobb's Journal series
Chris Demetriou and friends have released another flavour of Unix for 386
machines. NetBSD is based on 386BSD 0.1, but also contains code from the
Berkeley Networking 2 distribution, some original code from the NetBSD team
and many bug fixes. Anonymous FTP the NetBSD 0.8 distribution from
agate.berkeley.edu in `/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-0.8'. For more
DJGPP, the GNU C/C++ compiler for MS-DOS
D. J. Delorie has ported GCC/G++ 2.4 to the 386 MS-DOS platform.
The compiler and programs it generates run in 32-bit mode with full virtual
memory support. DJGPP is available via FTP from
ftp.clarkson.edu in `/pub/msdos/djgpp'. You can
subscribe to a mailing list on DJGPP by sending your e-mail address to
The FSF is distributing DJGPP both
on floppies and CD
(see "MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
Demacs, GNU Emacs for MS-DOS
Manabu Higashida and Hirano Satoshi have released Demacs, a GNU Emacs port
for 386/486 MS-DOS. Version 1.2.0 is the first post-beta release. Demacs
provides several DOS-specific features: support for binary or text file
translation, "8 bit clean" display mode, 80x86 software interrupt calls
int86 Lisp function, machine-specific features such as
function key support, file name completion with drive name, child processes
call-process). Dired mode works without
`ls.exe'. Anonymous FTP it from:
ftp.funet.fi in `/pub/gnu/emacs/demacs' (Europe).
The FSF is distributing Demacs both
on floppies and CD
(see "MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
Freemacs, an Extensible Editor for MS-DOS
email@example.com, has written a small
programmable editor called Freemacs. It is compatible enough with GNU
Emacs that Freemacs users can use the GNU Emacs Manual as a
reference for it. It will run on most MS-DOS systems, including 8088
Anonymous FTP it from `emacs16a.zip' (under
send $15 (copying fee) to:
11 Grant St.
Potsdam, NY 13676
Phone: (315) 268-1925 (Fax: 9201)
Specify floppy format:
GNU Software on MS-DOS
Russ Nelson has MS-DOS ports of many GNU programs available on floppy
disk. Contact him at the above address for more information.
You can ask
about MS-DOS ports of GNU programs and related mailing lists. Or
anonymous FTP files `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/MSDOS*' on
The FSF is distributing MS-DOS ports of many GNU programs on
(see "MS-DOS Distribution"
and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").
We still have our Free Software Foundation T-shirts available, designed
by Cambridge artist Jamal Hannah.
The front of the t-shirt has an image of a GNU hacking at a workstation
with the text "GNU's Not Unix" above and the text "Free Software
They are available in two colors, Natural and Black. Natural is an
off-white, unbleached, undyed, environment-friendly cotton, printed
with black ink, and is great for tye-dyeing or displaying as is. Black is
printed with white ink and is perfect for late night hacking. All
shirts are thick 100% cotton, and are available in sizes M, L, XL and
Use the "Free Software Foundation Order Form" to order your shirt, and
consider getting one as a present for your favorite hacker!
Work for something because it is good, not just because it stands
a chance to succeed.
Thanks to all those mentioned above in "Informal GCC Consortium",
"GNUs Flashes", "Project GNU Status Report", "GNU in Japan" and
"GNU Software Available Now".
Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
and the Laboratory for Computer Science at
MIT for their invaluable assistance.
Thanks to the Max-Plack-Institut fuer Informatik Im Stadtwald
for buying our Deluxe Distribution package.
Thanks are due to the following people for their assistance in Japan:
Nobuyuki Hikichi & Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi
Handa, Dr. Ikuo Takeuchi, Bob Myers,
David Littleboy, Mike Kandall, Prof. Masayuki
Ida, SEA & Japan Unix Society,
Michio Nagashima & Paul Abramson. Thanks to
Village Center, Inc., ASCII
Corporation, A.I. Soft and many others in Japan, for
their continued donations and support.
Thanks again to the USENIX Association for letting us
have a table at their conference; to the Open Software
Foundation for their continued support; and to Cygnus
Support for assisting Project GNU in many ways.
Thanks to Wired Magazine and Barry Meikle of the
University of Toronto Bookstore for donating us ad space
in their separate publications.
Thanks to Warren A. Hunt, Jr. and Computational Logic,
Inc. for their donation and support.
Jim Blandy thanks Jamie Zawinski for his implementation of some
of the X-related features in Emacs 19.
Thanks go out to all those who have either lent or donated machines,
including Cygnus Support for a Sun SPARCstation;
Hewlett-Packard for two 80486, six 68030 and four Spectrum
computers; Brewster Kahle of Thinking Machines Corp. for a
Sun-4/110; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60;
Intel Corp. for their 386 machine; NeXT for their
workstation; the MIT Media Laboratory for a
Hewlett-Packard 68020; SONY Corp. and Software
Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for
three SONY News workstations; IBM Corp. for an
RS/6000; the MIT Laboratory of Computer
Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software
Foundation for the Compaq 386; Delta Microsystems for an
Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for 5 IBM RT/PCs; Liant
Software Corp. for five VT100s; Jerry Peek for a 386 machine;
NCD Corporation for an X terminal; and Interleaf, Inc.,
Veronika Caslavsky, Paul English, Cindy
Woolworth and Lisa Bergen for the loan of a scanner.
Thanks to all those who have contributed ports and extensions, as well
as those who have contributed other source code, documentation and good
Thanks to all those who sent money and offered help.
Thanks also to all those who support us by ordering manuals,
distribution tapes, diskettes and CD-ROMs.
The creation of this bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed
interest in what we are doing.
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