GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 18, January, 1995
Table of Contents
- GNU's Who
- Administrivia and Copyright
- What Is the FSF?
- What Is Copyleft?
- What Is the Hurd?
- Free Software Redistributors Donate
- Help from Free Software Companies
- Zimmermann Legal Defense Fund Appeal
- Free Software Support
- News from the LPF
- What Is the LPF?
- End of Apple Boycott
- Third Annual GNU Seminars in Japan
- GNU and Other Free Software in Japan
- Free Unix for Romania
- GNUs Flashes
- Help the GNU Locale Project
- Forthcoming GNUs
- Freely Available Texts
- GNU Software
- Program/Package Cross Reference
- MS-DOS Diskettes
- Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service
- The Deluxe Distribution
- GNU Documentation
- How to Get GNU Software
- Other GPLed Software
- Free Software for Microcomputers
- FSF T-shirt
- Project GNU Wish List
- Thank GNUs
- Donations Translate Into Free Software
- Cygnus Matches Donations!
- Free Software Foundation Order Form
- Address Page
The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.
Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: +1--617--876--3296 675 Massachusetts Avenue Fax: (including Japan) +1--617--492--9057 Cambridge, MA 02139-3309 Free Dial Fax (in Japan): USA 0031--13--2473 (KDD) Electronic mail:
Ian Murdock joins us to do Debian GNU/Linux releases
and other programming tasks.
Michael Bushnell and Roland McGrath work together on the Hurd.
Roland also maintains
make and the GNU C library.
Karl Heuer enhances GNU Emacs.
Dan Hagerty has been hired as our system obfuscator and release coordinator. Charles Hannum works on typesetting and many other jobs.
Robert J. Chassell is our Secretary/Treasurer. Lisa Bloch is our Executive Director. Carl Hoffman is our Japan fundraiser and conference organizer. Recent hire Mike Drain is our distribution manager and Bryttan Bradley mangage many of the functions of the Business Office.
Mark Ashton worked on OCR software for us this summer and has now gone back to finish college. Noah Friedman, Jan Brittenson, Larissa Carlson and Len Kagelmacher have left the FSF. We thank them all for doing excellent work and for continuing to volunteer their time. Noah was one of the most dedicated and hardest working employees we have had and is particularly missed.
Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Thanks to volunteers Scott Ewing and Raja Daoud for helping to coordinate all the volunteers in the GNU Project. Thanks to volunteer Tami Friedman for handling much administrivia here at the FSF. Volunteer Len Tower remains our online JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling mailing lists and gnUSENET, information requests, etc.
Administrivia and Copyright
Written and Edited by: Karl Heuer, Daniel Hagerty, Robert J. Chassell and Leonard H. Tower Jr.
Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa
Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813
The GNU's Bulletin is published at the end of January and the end of June of each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on page 1. Enclosing a business sized self-addressed stamped envelope ($0.52) and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're from outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)
Copyright (C) 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.
...imagine how little used calculus would have been if a court had decided that no one could study, use or do research on it without paying a royalty to Newton's designated heirs.
- The Independent, October 5, 1992
What Is the FSF?
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" (pronounced "guh-new", "GNU's Not Unix") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.
The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have two specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code. You can study the source and learn how such programs are written. You may then be able to port it, improve it and share your changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software you may charge a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GPL; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.
Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.
Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.
The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President; Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson, and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.
What Is Copyleft?
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to all users. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.
The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.
We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of public license appear at the end of each license.
What Is the Hurd?
The Hurd will be the foundation of the whole GNU system. It is is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing kernel developed by CMU. Mach's virtual memory management and message-passing facilities are extensively used by the Hurd. The GNU C Library will provide the Unix system call interface, using the Hurd servers for those services it can't provide itself.
One goal of the Hurd is to establish a framework for shared development and maintenance. The Hurd is like GNU Emacs in that it will allow users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design.
Currently there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700 & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting GCC) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists. Right now we are using the University of Utah's Mach distribution, but we hope that will be unified with the distribution produced by the Open Software Foundation.
Important progress has been made recently; see section GNUs Flashes.
There are significant projects relating to the Hurd for which we need
volunteers. Experienced system programmers who are interested should send
firstname.lastname@example.org. Porting the Mach kernel or the
GNU C Library to new systems is another way to help development of the
Free Software Redistributors Donate
by Richard Stallman
The Sun Users Group Deutschland has agreed to add a donation to the FSF to the price of their next CD-ROM of GNU software. Potential purchasers will know precisely how much of the price is for the FSF and how much is for SUGD. Austin Code Works, a redistributor of free software, is supporting free software development by giving the FSF 20% of the selling price for the GNU software packages they produce and sell. Walnut Creek CD-ROM, Inc. and Info Magic, two more free software redistributors, are also giving us a percentage of their selling price. CQ Publishing made a large donation from the sales of their book about GAWK in Japanese.
In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.
You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves, or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).
The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.
To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits are donated", doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.
Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler contribute more; major new features and programs contribute the most.
By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.
Help from Free Software Companies
When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
These free software support companies regularly donate a part of their income to the Free Software Foundation to support the development of new GNU programs. Listing them here is our way of thanking them. Wingnut has made a pledge to donate 10% of their income to the FSF, and have also purchased several Deluxe Distribution packages in Japan. (Wingnut is SRA's special GNU support group). Also see section Cygnus Matches Donations!.
Wingnut Project Software Research Associates, Inc. 1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 102, Japan Phone: (+81-3)3234-2611 Fax: (+81-3)3942-5174 E-mail:
Contributed Software GbR Graefestr. 76 D-10967 Berlin Germany Telephone: (+49-30) 694-69-07 Fax: (+49-30) 694-68-09 Electronic-Mail:
email@example.comBBS & no-charge free software archive: Dialins: (+49-30) 693-40-51 (eight USR DS's) (+49-30) 694-60-55 (five ZyXELs) Telnet:
Zimmermann Legal Defense Fund Appeal
Phil Zimmermann, who wrote the public-key encryption program known as Pretty Good Privacy ("PGP") and released it on the Internet, is now facing prosecution for "exporting" it out of the United States.
There is a law prohibiting the export of encryption software from the US. Zimmermann did not do this, but the US government hopes to establish the proposition that posting an encryption program on a BBS or on the Internet constitutes exporting it--in effect, stretching export control into domestic censorship.
If the government wins, that will have a chilling effect on the free flow of information on the global network, as well as on everyone's privacy from government snooping.
Estimates are that Zimmermann's defense will cost over $100,000--and that doesn't even count lawyers' fees. To help pay this, a legal trust fund, the Philip Zimmermann Defense Fund (PZDF), has been established. Donations are accepted in any reliable form, check, money order, or wire transfer, and in any currency, as well as by credit card.
To send a check or money order by mail, make it payable, not to Phil Zimmermann, but to "Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account." Mail the check or money order to the following address:
Philip Dubois 2305 Broadway Boulder, CO 80304 USA Telephone: +1-303-444-3885
To send a wire transfer, your bank will need the following information:
Bank: VectraBank Routing #: 107004365 Account #: 0113830 Account Name: ``Philip L. Dubois, Attorney Trust Account''
Free Software Support
The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.
The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support and other consulting services. It is in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software for a list). Contact us if you would like a copy or wish to be listed in it. Those service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.
If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have
many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements and questions.
They are also gatewayed into USENET news as the
You can request a list of the mailing lists from either address on
the top menu.
When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.
Please do not ask us to help you install software or figure out how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.
If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via UUCP. Contact a local UUCP site, or a commercial UUCP site such as:
UUNET Communications Services 3110 Fairview Park Drive -- Suite 570 Falls Church, VA 22042 USA Telephone: +1-800-4UUNET4 +1-703-204-8000 Fax: +1-703-204-8001 Electronic-Mail:
A list of commercial UUCP and Internet service providers is posted
periodically to USENET in the newsgroup
`Subject: How to become a USENET site'. You can also get it via
anonymous FTP from the host
rtfm.mit.edu in the file
`How_to_become_a_USENET_site', in the directory
When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
News from the LPF
The LPF has recently been placing less emphasis on communicating its position to individual programmers, and more on communicating with government and industry.
During 1994, the LPF testified at two patent office hearings and filed papers in two court cases (the Lotus v. Borland appeal and another look and feel case in Texas). These activities are less visible to the public, but directly relate to the goals of the LPF.
The LPF has also decided to drop the boycott against look and feel plantiffs as a tactic.
The LPF has been attempting to establish relationships with companies within the software industry. Adobe, Autodesk, Oracle, Synopsis, and Wind River Systems have all publically issued statements opposed to software patents.
It is a slow process, but real progress is being made.
The LPF now has a World Wide Web server. It contains general information
relating to the LPF, various documents the LPF has published, and any other
related information the LPF is able to assemble. The Web site is available
at URL: `http://www.lpf.org/'. Please suggest improvements to:
What Is the LPF?
The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright lawsuits and by software patents.
The League for Programming Freedom is a grass-roots organization of professors, students, business people, programmers, users, and and even software companies dedicated to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League is not opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on individual programs. Our aim is to reverse the recent changes made by judges in response to special interests.
Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.
To join, please send a check and the following information:
- Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both).
- The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please indicate whether it is your home address or your work address).
- The company you work for, and your position.
- Your email address, so the League can contact you for political action. (If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say so, but please provide your email address anyway.)
Please mention anything about you which would enable your
endorsement of the LPF to impress the public.
- Please say whether you would like to help with LPF activities.
The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation and is not concerned with the issue of free software. The FSF supports the LPF because, like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered by software patents and interface copyrights. You are in danger, too! It would be easy to ignore the problem until you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to organize before that happens.
If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information:
League for Programming Freedom 1 Kendall Square - #143 P.O. Box 9171 Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Telephone: +1-617-243-4091 Electronic-Mail:
firstname.lastname@example.orgWWW: `http://www.lpf.org/' FTP:
End of Apple Boycott
For several years, the Free Software Foundation has participated in a boycott of Apple, Lotus & Xerox sponsored by the League for Programming Freedom.
The League for Programming Freedom has decided to end the boycott (see section News from the LPF). So the FSF will now treat Apple operating systems like other non-free operating systems. This means we will accept patches for Apple systems when that is easy and painless, and usually not otherwise.
The aim of the GNU Project is developing the GNU operating system. Supporting other operating systems is something we do as a sideline when it seems good to do. If changes to support some other system are likely to take substantial maintenance time, it is better for us to reject them, and spend that time on tasks that contribute directly to the GNU system.
Third Annual GNU Seminars in Japan
The FSF sponsored the third annual GNU Technical Seminar on December 5, 1994 in Tokyo. Richard Stallman spoke on the GNU Project and the GNU extension language plans. Gavin T. Nicol then spoke on the World Wide Web and compared the existing free operating systems. Finally, Michael Bushnell spoke on the Hurd. Bob Myers and David Littleboy translated the English lectures into Japanese. Over 140 people attended the seminar, and some Japanese publications interviewed Richard Stallman. The FSF also premiered the latest editions of our Source Code and Compiler Tool Binaries CD-ROMs. The seminar was supported by several organizations who did all the behind-scene work: LS-JP, NSUG, JUS, SEA, and CSRL-Aoyama Gakuin; and was supervised by Masayuki Ida, Carl Hoffman and Nobuyuki Hikichi. The Lisp Society of Japan, Computer Science Research Lab at Aoyama Gakuin University, and Software Research Associates, Inc. (SRA), and their staff provided help in countless ways for this seminar and the entire trip to Japan.
Seminars were also held at Aoyama Gakuin on December 7th, where Richard Stallman spoke on GNU Emacs Lisp as an Extension Language, and at The University of Aizu where both Richard Stallman & Michael Bushnell spoke.
The Japan Unix Society gave the FSF a booth at Unix Fair '94 in Yokohama. We thank all the volunteers and organizations who helped run this booth.
Our success at the seminars and trade show exceeded our expectations. We received many unsolicited donations from individual supporters and users' groups, and are thankful for the number of enthusiastic volunteers who helped us. In the future we hope to appear at even more Unix events both in Japan and elsewhere. If you would like to host a seminar, or need a speaker for a conference, please contact either address on the top menu.
GNU and Other Free Software in Japan
email@example.com) and Nobuyuki Hikichi
firstname.lastname@example.org) continue to volunteer for the GNU
Project in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into
Japanese and distribute it widely, along with their translation of the
GNU General Public License Version 2. This translation of the GPL is
authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from
ftp.sra.co.jp in `/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'.
They are working on a formal translation of the GNU Library General
Public License. They also solicit donations and offer GNU software
nepoch (the Japanese version of Epoch) and MULE are available and
widely used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can
handle many character sets at once. Its features are being merged
into the FSF's version of Emacs. The FSF does not distribute
nepoch, but MULE is available (see section December 1994 Source Code CD-ROM and the section Emacs Diskettes). You
can FTP it from
/pub/mule. See section GNU Software,
for more information about MULE.
The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and uploads the Texinfo source to various bulletin boards. They have also published a copylefted book, Nobuyuki's and Mieko's Think GNU. This appears to be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. Part of their profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is:
Village Center, Inc. 3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3221-3520
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed a Japanese translation of the GNU Make Manual and the GAWK Manual. Their address is:
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. Nichibou Bldg. 2F 1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3291-4581
The Institute for New Generation Computer Technology, ICOT, has
released the "ICOT Free Software (IFS)" distribution. The famous
Fifth Generation Computing System project produced this distribution,
which includes 100 systems for symbol processing, knowledge
processing, problem solving, inference, and natural language
processing. Many of them are based on parallel logic programming.
Nearly half of the software can run on Unix workstations. For details,
There is a mailing list in Japan to discuss both hardware and software
which is under the GNU General Public License. This list provides
information about making your own computer system. The main language used
on the list is Japanese. If you are interested in getting information or
having discussions in English, contact
Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; the Fujitsu FM Towns users group; and SRA's special GNU support group, called Wingnut, who also purchased the first Deluxe package in Japan. (Since then, there have been several other purchases of the Deluxe package in Japan.)
It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding
new code. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask
We encourage you to buy
software on tapes or CDs: for example, every 160 tape orders allows FSF to
hire a programmer for a year to write more free software.
Free Unix for Romania
In 1992, Marius Hancu,
email@example.com, began a project to send
freely distributable software to Romania, called "Free Unix for Romania."
At that time, little such software was available in Romania. Recently, Ted
firstname.lastname@example.org, took over project coordination.
The main focus has been on sending editors, debuggers, compilers, and operating system distributions using GNU/Linux and Free/NetBSD--all freely redistributable and able to run on inexpensive 80386 and 80486 PCs.
In addition, they have sought donations, sent equipment and computer science books to Romania, and created a list of volunteer technical consultants.
- Hurd (Also see section What Is the Hurd?)
The GNU Hurd now runs many programs native.
It can run GCC,
make, Emacs, and most other GNU utilities. Progress is being made so rapidly that by the time you read this it probably does much more. It is right on the verge of being self-hosting (able to run on its own well enough to compile its own source code and be used for its own development). For a complete system we still have much more work to do, but we will make an alpha release as soon as the network software is finished and shared libraries have been implemented. We have a mailing list to distribute announcements about progress; to be added to it, send mail to
- Mach and 4.4BSD--Lite for PA-RISC HP 700 An almost complete snapshot of a Mach/4.4BSD--Lite based single-server for the PA-RISC HP 700 is available from `jaguar.cs.utah.edu:/flexmach' by anonymous FTP. The snapshot provides binaries for the "Lites" BSD-based single-server, freely redistributable sources for a complete Mach kernel with integrated support for the PA-RISC 1.1 (HP 700) platform, a complete GNU tool chain for the ELF object format, and other software. (Sources for the floating point emulation library are not available.) The developers caution that this (December 1994) snapshot is for hard-core operating system hackers only. This is not a formal release and is not yet robust. Check `http://www.cs.utah.edu/projects/flexmach/' for more information.
- GNU Software Now Works on MS-DOS (Also see section GNU Software) GNU Emacs 19 and many other GNU programs have been ported to MS-DOS for 386 and 486 based machines. We ship binaries & sources on the section DJGPP Diskettes, section Emacs Diskettes, & the section Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, & soon on the section MS-DOS CD-ROM.
- GAS merged with Binutils (Also see section GNU Software) Due to large amounts of shared code, GAS, the GNU Assembler, has been merged with GNU Binutils.
- Two calculators in one (Also see section GNU Software)
The RPN calculator
dc, once packaged alone, is now packaged with
bc. Unlike the traditional Unix implementation, GNU
bcis not just a front end for
- The Dictionary Project The FSF has a copy of the Century Dictionary, an unabridged dictionary now in the public domain, and we are planning to put it online. We tried OCR, but it wasn't reliable enough. We're now waiting for the results from the first batch of dictionary volunteers. We've decided to see how well the process works with the first batch before we ask anyone else to do work.
- 4.4BSD--Lite (Also see section Berkeley 4.4BSD--Lite Tape) The FSF is distributing 4.4BSD--Lite (instead of the old Berkeley Networking 2 tape). The "Lite" refers to the omitting of some proprietary files that still remain in the full 4.4BSD distribution. However, 4.4BSD--Lite is considerably more complete than the previous Networking 2 release.
- Common Lisp Freed! (Also see section GNU Software) We now distribute GNU Common Lisp (GCL). Previously, GCL had distribution terms under which each user had to have a signed paper contract on file. However, the authors recently decided to switch to the LGPL.
- New Packages on the Languages Tape (Also see section GNU Software) OBST, the GNU Objective-C Library and Perl 5 have been added.
- New Program on the Utilities Tape (Also
see section GNU Software)
netfaxhas been replaced by
- New Programs on the Source Code CD-ROM This CD-ROM has all the new programs and changes on the tapes. See section December 1994 Source Code CD-ROM, for details.
- GNU Column in Linux Magazine
email@example.com, a long-time volunteer for the GNU Project, is the author of "What's GNU?", a semi-regular column in the monthly magazine Linux Journal. The column discusses the GNU Project, its software and other interesting free software. Authors of significant GNU software packages occasionally write columns as guest authors. For subscription information, contact
- Experimental Tape Takes a Recess (Also see section Tapes) We are not currently distributing the Experimental Tape because most of the programs that were on it are now stable and have moved to other tapes.
- The FSF now takes American Express We now accept the American Express credit card in addition to Visa, Mastercard, JCB, Diner's Club, and Carte Blanche. Please note that we are charged about 5% of an order's total amount in credit card processing fees. Please consider paying by check instead, or adding on a 5% donation to make up the difference.
- Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM We have a new edition of the Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM with updated versions of all the software on it. It contains executables of the GNU compiler tools for some systems that don't normally come with a compiler. This allows users of those systems to compile their own software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. See section Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, for details, including which platforms are supported. We hope to include more systems with each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems, or have one to suggest, please contact us at either address on the top menu.
- Source CD-ROM Subscriptions We offer a subscription service for the Source Code CD-ROM in addition to our tape subscription service. For the price of 3 CD-ROMs (plus any shipping costs) you get the next 4 that we make. We make between two and four updates a year. See section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service.
- FSF Accepts Orders and Donations via Fax You can now send orders and donations to the FSF by fax. Please fax us a completed see section Free Software Foundation Order Form, including credit card information, since orders must be prepaid. We do not accept purchase orders. The number is +1--617--492--9057. Individuals in Japan who are unable to place international calls may use the "free dial" numbers: 0031--13--2473 (KDD) and 0066--3382--0158 (IDC).
- A new FSF T-shirt! There is a new version of our T-shirt. The previous version of the T-shirt will remain available while supplies last, but please contact the office to see if we have what you would like before ordering. See section FSF T-shirt.
If a software system includes several programs that are extensible, they should all use the same extension language implementation. This means less for extension writers to learn, and that libraries of extensions may be useful with more than one program. A common language enables programs to exchange complex data structures or source code. A common implementation conserves both system and maintainer resources.
The GNU Project has started to build Guile: GNUs' Ubiquitous Extension Language. We will produce a library which programmers can use to make any ordinary C program extensible. We expect to use this library in many GNU programs and hope to see wide use elsewhere. We are basing Guile on SCM, a version of Scheme written by Aubrey Jaffer (see the JACAL item in section GNU Software). A number of cosmetic changes are being made, so the interpreter will be more useful as a C library. Volunteers are working on a complete Posix interface, an SCSH-like library, and a module system. Releases with only some of the features mentioned will begin early in 1995. SCM is already available.
The copyright terms for Guile will permit the use of the library even in proprietary programs. We plan to use terms similar to those used for X11.
Choosing Scheme helps to put aside controversy over "which extension language is best". It is a convenient target language, into which other languages may be translated. Even though maintainers must choose one extension language implementation, users can choose from any number of extension languages.
Anyone can make Guile applications programmable in their favorite language simply by writing a new translator. We intend to have a language that is like simplified C and one that is like an interactive command processor syntax. Guile will be able to run Emacs Lisp programs.
Help the GNU Locale Project
The GNU locale package (glocale) is a set of tools that provides a framework to help other GNU packages produce multilingual messages. glocale is currently undergoing alpha testing.
A handful of GNU packages have already been adapted and provided with
message translations for several languages. Translation teams have begun
to organize, using these packages as a starting point. But there are many
more packages and many languages for which we have no volunteer
translators. If you'd like to volunteer to work at translating messages,
please send mail to
firstname.lastname@example.org indicating what
language(s) you can work on.
Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.
- New CD-ROMs from the FSF (see section CD-ROMs) We will release the sixth edition of its Source Code CD-ROM in March 1995. We will also be releasing two new CDs: the MS-DOS CD-ROM in February 1995; & the Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM in Spring 1995; both of them will come in a book describing their contents. Contact either address on the top menu, for more information then.
- Programming in Emacs Lisp, An Intro. (see section GNU Documentation) In February, the FSF will publish the first edition of Programming in Emacs Lisp, An Introduction by Robert J. Chassell (who, in another guise, is the FSF's Secretary/Treasurer). This book is an elementary introduction, written for people who are not programmers & who do not necessarily wish to be, but who do want to extend Emacs. The book walks though code used in GNU Emacs & has many sample programs that you can run in Emacs.
- GNU Objective-C Class Library (Also see section GNU Software)
Future versions, of the GNU Objective-C Class Library (
libobjects), will have String objects that are integrated into the Collection object hierarchy, a better allocation/deallocation mechanism, improved features for distributed objects (including a back-end using Mach ports instead of sockets), more extensive random number generator facilities, and ports to more machines. Volunteers are needed for additional projects; contact
- GNUStep: GNU OpenStep
OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface
specification being proposed as an open object standard. Since its
announcement over a year ago, there has been much interest in a GNU
implementation, which is named GNUStep. Work has started on an
implementation using an existing library written in Objective-C as a
starting point. Much work remains to be done to bring this library close to
the OpenStep specifications. Volunteers should contact
makeinfoand the World Wide Web (Also see section GNU Software)
makeinfois being modified to translate Texinfo source files into HTML documents that can be displayed from the Internet's World Wide Web.
- GNU Common Lisp (For current status, see section GNU Software)
Version 1.1 of GNU Common Lisp (GCL) was released in November.
Development is now concentrating on a TK based graphical window
interface; a beta version will be available by time you read this Bulletin.
Both GCL specific documentation, and a Texinfo version of the proposed ANSI
standard have been written. Work on conditions, installing the new
compiler, and internals is underway. Volunteers for parts of the move to
the ANSI standard and to convert the current GCL specific documentation to
Texinfo are most welcome; contact
- GNU Emacs (For current status, see section GNU Software) Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time display editor & computing environment. The next release will have support for Windows NT, be able to communicate with multiple X displays at once & be able to save text properties in files for editing formatted text. Future releases will include: different visibility conditions for regions & for multiple windows showing the same buffer, incrementally saving the undo history in a file, so that you can undo older changes in the history, support for both variable-width fonts & wide character sets including all the world's major languages.
- C Interpreter
We hope to add interpreter facilities to the GNU compiler and debugger.
This task is partly finished. GCC now generates byte code (for all
supported languages: C, C++ and Objective-C) and another package
To make this work usable, we need to add features to GDB to load the byte
code dynamically. We also would like C compiler support for compiling just
a specified few functions in a file. Due to limited resources, the FSF
cannot fund this. Interested volunteers should contact
- GCC (For current status, see section GNU Software) New front ends for GCC are being developed for Pascal and Chill. See the GNU Fortran and GNAT items in this article for news on those front ends.
- GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator (Not yet available from the FSF)
A front end for much of Ada 9X (GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator) is available
via anonymous FTP from
cs.nyu.eduin `/pub/gnat'. News about GNAT is posted to the USENET newsgroup
- GNU Fortran (For info on
f2c& GCC, see section GNU Software) We have released GNU Fortran (
g77), developed by Craig Burley, for public beta testing. For the time being,
g77produces code that is generally object-compatible with
f2c, and they use the same run-time library (
g77front end is stable, but work is needed to bring its overall packaging, feature set, and performance up to the levels the Fortran community expects. Tasks to be done include: writing documentation; improving diagnostics; speeding up compilation especially for large initialized data tables; implementing
INTEGER*8, and similar features; and arranging to build and install
libf2cautomatically. We don't know when these things will be done, but we hope some will be finished in the coming months. You can speed progress by working on some of them or by offering funding. A mailing list exists for announcements about
g77. To subscribe, ask
email@example.com. To contact the developer of
g77, write to
- Ghostscript (For current status, see section GNU Software) Ghostscript 3.0 will be released and distributed by the FSF late in 1995; a future GNU's Bulletin will have a more definite date. It will implement the full Postscript Level 2 language except for LZW compression, which can't be freely implemented because of software patents. (Prohibitions on programming like this are what the League for Programming Freedom is fighting. See section What Is the LPF?, for details.)
- Oleo (For current status, see section GNU Software) Volunteers are writing an Oleo manual and extensions to the Oleo interface.
- rx, a faster regular expression library
Tom Lord has written
rx, a new regular expression library which is faster than the current library we use. Currently it is only being distributed with
sed; eventually we will distribute it as a separate package as well. This new library is nearly a drop-in replacement for the current
regexlibrary used by the GNU Project, but it needs a few more features to be used in Emacs.
- Smalltalk (For current status, see section GNU Software) The next release, version 1.2, will use the GNU Autoconf configuration system, and will have significant performance improvements and memory requirement reductions, more control over the memory allocation, ability to use the Smalltalk interpreter as a subroutine (i.e., callable from C), better interfaces to the X Window System, ability to represent and manipulate C data structures in Smalltalk, conditional compilation facilities, large integer support, a complete GUI based class browsing system, better (more complete/usable) TCP/IP interfaces, exception support, and weak references & finalization support.
Freely Available Texts
Freely redistributable information isn't just software. We have a list
of groups providing various books, historical documents, and more. You can
FTP the list in file `/pub/gnu/FreelyAvailableTexts' from
prep.ai.mit.edu. Please let either address on
the top menu
know of additional entries.
All our software is available via FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. In addition, we offer software on various media and printed documentation:
- section CD-ROMs.
- section Tapes.
- section MS-DOS Diskettes.
- section GNU Documentation, which includes manuals and reference cards.
We welcome all bug reports sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).
In the articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a distribution tape, diskette or newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer, and therefore the version number higher.
Key to cross reference:
- Binaries CD-ROM
- Djgpp Diskettes
- MS-DOS CD-ROM
- Emacs Diskettes
- Lisps/Emacs Tape
- Languages Tape
- 4.4BSD-Lite Tape
- Scheme Tape
- Source CD-ROM
- Selected Utilities Diskettes
- Utilities Tape
- VMS Compiler Tape
- VMS Emacs Tape
- Windows Diskette
- X11 Optional Tape
- X11 Required Tape
Configuring GNU Software:
We are using a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in
order to compile them. It uses the
autoconf program (see item
below). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same
alternatives for naming machine and system types.
When the GNU system is complete it will be possible to configure and build the entire system at once, eliminating the need to separately configure each individual package.
The configuration scheme can also specify both the host and target system, so you can easily configure and build cross-compilation tools.
GNU software currently available:
(For new features and coming programs, see section Forthcoming GNUs.)
acmis a LAN-oriented, multiplayer aerial combat simulation that runs under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. We are working on more accurate simulation of real airplane flight characteristics.
- Autoconf (SrcCD, UtilT)
Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source code
packages. These scripts adapt the packages to many kinds of Unix-like
systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a script for a
package from a template file which lists the operating system features
which the package can use, in the form of
m4macro calls. Autoconf requires GNU
m4to operate, but the resulting configure scripts it generates do not. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.
- BASH (SrcCD, UtilT)
The GNU shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with
shand offers many extensions found in
ksh. BASH has job control,
csh-style command history, and command-line editing (with Emacs and
vimodes built-in, and the ability to rebind keys) via the readline library. BASH conforms to the POSIX 1003.2 shell specification.
bc(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT)
bcis an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision numbers. GNU
bcfollows the POSIX.2-1992 standard, with several extensions including multi-character variable names, an
elsestatement, and full Boolean expressions. The RPN calculator
dcis now distributed as part of the same package, but GNU
bcis not implemented as a
- BFD (BinCD, DjggpD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD)
The Binary File Descriptor library allows a program which
operates on object files (e.g.,
ldor GDB) to support many different formats in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs to know the details of a particular format. One result is that all programs using BFD will support formats such as a.out, COFF, and ELF. BFD comes with source for Texinfo documentation (not yet published on paper). Presently BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with packages that use it.
- Binutils (BinCD, DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD)
Binutils includes the programs:
strip. Binutils Version 2 uses the BFD library. The GNU linker
ldemits source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references. It interprets a superset of the AT&T Linker Command Language, which gives general control over where segments are placed in memory.
nlmconvconverts object files into Novell NetWare Loadable Modules.
objdumpcan disassemble code for a29k, ALPHA, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, m68k, m88k, MIPS, SH, SPARC, & Z8000 processors, and can display other data (e.g., symbols & relocations) from any file format understood by BFD.
- Bison (BinCD, DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD, VMSCompT)
Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
yacc. Texinfo source for the Bison Manual and reference card are included. See section GNU Documentation.
- GNU C Library (BinCD, LangT, SrcCD)
The GNU C library supports ANSI C-1989, POSIX 1003.1-1990 and most of the
functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992. It is upwardly compatible with 4.4BSD and
includes many System V functions, plus GNU extensions.
The C Library will perform many functions of the Unix system calls in
the Hurd. Mike Haertel has written a fast
mallocwhich wastes less memory than the old GNU version. The GNU regular-expression functions (
rx) now nearly conform to the POSIX 1003.2 standard. GNU
stdiolets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few C functions. The
fmemopenfunction uses this to open a stream on a string, which can grow as necessary. You can define your own
printfformats to use a C function you have written. For example, you can safely use format strings from user input to implement a
printf-like function for another programming language. Extended
getoptfunctions are already used to parse options, including long options, in many GNU utilities. The C Library runs on Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1 or Solaris 2), HP 9000/300 (4.3BSD), SONY News 800 (NewsOS 3 or 4), MIPS DECstation (Ultrix 4), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), i386/i486 (System V, SVR4, BSD, SCO 3.2 & SCO ODT 2.0), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3) & SGI (Irix 4). Texinfo source for the GNU C Library Reference Manual is included (see section GNU Documentation); the manual is now being updated.
- GNU C++ Library (BinCD, DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD) The GNU C++ library (libg++) is an extensive collection of C++ forest classes, an IOStream library for input/output routines, and support tools for use with G++. Supported classes include: Obstacks, multiple-precision Integers and Rationals, Complex numbers, arbitrary length Strings, BitSets and BitStrings. Version 2.6.2 includes the initial release of the libstdc++ library. This implements library facilities defined by the forthcoming ANSI/ISO C++ standard, including the Standard Template Library.
- Calc (LspEmcT, SrcCD)
Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced
desk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs. You
can use Calc just as a simple four-function calculator, but it has many more
features including: choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based)
entry; logarithmic, trigonometric & financial functions; arbitrary
precision; complex numbers; vectors; matrices;
times; infinities; sets; algebraic simplification; differentiation &
integration. It outputs to
gnuplot& comes with source for a reference card & a Manual. See section GNU Documentation.
- GNU Chess (SrcCD, UtilT, WdwsD) GNU Chess lets the computer play a full game of chess with you. It runs on most platforms & has dumb terminal, "curses" & X terminal interfaces. GNU Chess implements many specialized features including the null move heuristic, a hash table with aging, the history heuristic (another form of the earlier killer heuristic), caching of static evaluations, & a database which lets it play the first several moves of the game quickly. Recent improvements include better heuristics, faster evaluation, thinking on opponent's time, Swedish & German language support, support for more book formats, a rudimentary Bobby Fischer clock, & bug fixes. It is primarily supported by Stuart Cracraft, Mike McGann, Chua Kong Sian, & Tim Mann on behalf of the FSF.
- CLISP (LspEmcT, SrcCD) CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation (CLtL1 + parts of CLtL2) by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll. It mostly supports the Lisp described by Common LISP: The Language (2nd edition). CLISP includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler, a subset of CLOS and, for some machines, a screen editor. The user interface language (English, German, French) is chooseable at run time. Major packages that run in CLISP include CLX & Garnet. CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory & runs on many microcomputers (including MS-DOS systems, OS/2, the Atari ST, Amiga 500--4000) & Unix-like systems (GNU/Linux, Sun4, SVR4, SGI, HP-UX, DEC Alpha, NeXTstep & others).
- GNU Common Lisp (LspEmcT, SrcCD) GNU Common Lisp (GCL) has a compiler and interpreter for Common Lisp. It is very portable and extremely efficient on a wide class of applications. It compares favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem--prover and symbolic algebra systems. It supports the CLtL1 specification but is moving towards the proposed ANSI definition. It was formerly know as Kyoto Common Lisp. GCL compiles to C and then uses the native optimizing C compilers (e.g., GCC). A function with a fixed number of args and one value turns into a C function of the same number of args and returning one value, so GCL is maximally efficient on such calls. It has a conservative garbage collector which allows great freedom for the C compiler to put Lisp values in arbitrary registers. It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code, with display of source code in an Emacs window. It has profiling tools based on the C profiling tools, which count function calls and percentage of time spent in each function. CLX works with GCL. There is an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2). PCL runs with GCL (see PCL item later in this article). See section Forthcoming GNUs, for plans for about GCL. GCL version 1.1 is released under the GNU Library General Public License.
cpio(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
cpiois an alternative archive program with all the features of SVR4
cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 ustar standard.
mt, a program to position magnetic tapes, is included with
- CVS (SrcCD, UtilT)
CVS, the Concurrent Version System, manages software revision and release
control in a multi-developer, multi-directory, multi-group environment. It
works best in conjunction with RCS versions 4 and above, but will parse
older RCS formats with the loss of CVS's fancier features. See Berliner,
Brian, "CVS-II: Parallelizing Software Development," Proceedings of
the Winter 1990 USENIX Association Conference. To find out how to get a
copy of this report, ask
- DejaGnu (LangT, SrcCD)
DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs that provides a single
front end for all tests. The framework's flexibility and consistency makes
it easy to write tests for any program. DejaGnu comes with
expect, which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with programs.
- Diffutils (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
diffcompares files showing line-by-line changes in several flexible formats. It is much faster than traditional Unix versions. The Diffutils package contains
cmp. Recent Diffutils improvements include: a new
diffoption to do all input/output in binary; this is useful on some non-Posix hosts, and more consistent handling of character sets. Plans for the Diffutils package include support for internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese), and for some non-Unix PC environments.
- DJGPP (BinCD, DjgppD, DosCD)
DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ 2.6.0 (see the GCC item in this section)
to the i386 MS-DOS platform. The DJGPP package also contains a 32-bit
80386 DOS extender with symbolic debugger; development libraries; and ports
flex, GAS, and the GNU Binutils. Full source code is provided. It requires at least 5MB of hard disk space to install and 512K of RAM to use. It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS & VDISK memory allocation,
himem.sys, VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, & 386MAX), and DPMI (e.g., Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI). Ask
firstname.lastname@example.org join a DJGPP users mailing list.
dldis a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your program with the
dldlibrary allows you to dynamically load object files into the running binary. Currently supported are VAX (Ultrix), Sun 3 (SunOS 3.4 & 4.0), SPARC (SunOS 4.0), Sequent Symmetry (Dynix), & Atari ST.
doschk(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT) This program is intended as a utility to help software developers ensure that their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with 14-character filenames and on MS-DOS with 8+3 character filenames.
eccis a Reed-Solomon error correction checking program, which can correct three byte errors in a block of 255 bytes and detect more severe errors. Contact
paulf@Stanford.EDUfor more information.
ed(SrcCD, UtilT) Ed is the standard text editor.
- Elib (LspEmcT, SrcCD) Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including routines for using AVL trees and doubly-linked lists.
- GNU Emacs In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible, customizable real-time display editor and computing environment. GNU Emacs is his second implementation. It offers true Lisp--smoothly integrated into the editor--for writing extensions, and provides an interface to the X Window System. In addition to its powerful native command set, extensions which emulate other popular editors are distributed: vi and EDT (DEC's VMS editor). It has many other features which make it a full computing support environment. Source for the GNU Emacs Manual, the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, and a reference card come with the software. See section GNU Documentation.
- GNU Emacs 18 (EmcsD, LspEmcT, SrcCD, VMSEmcsT) GNU Emacs 18.59 is the last release of version 18 from the FSF. We are no longer maintaining it. It runs on many Unix systems. In hardware order: Alliant FX/80 & FX/2800, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), Apollo, AT&T (3Bs & 7300 PC), DG Aviion, Bull DPX/2 (2nn & 3nn) CCI 5/32 & 6/32, Celerity, Convex, Digital (DECstation 3100 & 5000 (PMAXes), Mips, VAX (BSD, SysV & VMS)), Motorola Delta 147 & 187, Dual, Elxsi 6400, Encore (DPC, APC & XPC), Gould, HP (9000 series 200, 300, 700 & 800, but not 500), HLH Orion (original & 1/05), IBM (RS/6000 (AIX), RT/PC (4.2 & AIX) & PS/2 (AIX (386 only))), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Intel 860 & 80386 (BSD, Esix, SVR3, SVR4, SCO, ISC, IX, AIX & others), Iris (2500, 2500 Turbo & 4D), Masscomp, MIPS, National Semiconductor 32000, NeXT (Mach), NCR Tower 32 (SVR2 & SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu (TI & LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime EXL, Pyramid (original & MIPS), Sequent (Balance & Symmetry), SONY News (m68k & MIPS), Stride (system release 2), all Suns including 386i (all SunOS & some Solaris vers.), Tadpole, Tahoe, Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix (16000 & 4300), Triton 88, Ustation E30 (SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1) & Wicat. In operating system order: AIX (RS/6000, RT/PC, 386-PS/2), BSD (vers. 4.1, 4.2, 4.3), DomainOS, Esix (386), HP-UX (HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800 but not 500), ISC (386), IX (386), Mach, Microport, NewsOS (Sony m68k & MIPS) SCO (386), SVR0 (Vax, AT&T 3Bs), SVR2, SVR3, SVR4, Solaris 2.0, SunOS, UTS (Amdahl), Ultrix (vers. 3.0, 4,1), Uniplus 5.2 (Dual machines), VMS (vers. 4.0, 4.2, 4.4, 5.5) & Xenix (386).
- GNU Emacs 19 (DosCD, EmacsD, LspEmcT, SrcCD) Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals as well as with the X Window System. New features in Emacs 19 include: multiple X windows ("frames" to Emacs), with either a separate X window for the minibuffer or a minibuffer attached to each X window; property lists associated with regions of text in a buffer; multiple fonts and colors defined by those properties; simplified and improved processing of function keys, mouse clicks and mouse movement; X selection processing, including clipboard selections; hooks to be run if point or mouse moves outside a certain range; menu bars and popup menus defined by keymaps; scrollbars; before and after change hooks; source-level debugging of Emacs Lisp programs; European character sets support; floating point numbers; improved buffer allocation, including returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed; interfacing with the X resource manager; GNU configuration scheme support; good RCS support; & many updated libraries. Recent features include X toolkit support, dialog boxes, operation on MS-DOS, much faster text properties, keyboard equivalents shown automatically in menus, & text that highlights when you move the mouse over it. Emacs 19.28 is known to work on, in hardware order: Alliant FX/2800 (BSD); Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn (SVR3) & sps7 (SVR2); Clipper; Convex (BSD); Cubix QBx (SysV); Data General Aviion (DGUX); DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2 & OSF/1, not VMS); Elxsi 6400 (SysV); Gould Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD); Harris Night Hawk 1200 and 3000, 4000 and 5000 (cxux); Honeywell XPS100 (SysV); HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800 (but not 500) (4.3BSD or HP-UX 7, 8, 9); Intel i386 & i486 (386BSD, AIX, BSDI/386, FreeBSD, Esix, GNU/Linux, ISC, MS-DOS (see section MS-DOS Diskettes & section MS-DOS CD-ROM), NetBSD, SCO3.2v4, SysV, Xenix); IBM RS6000 (AIX 3.2); IBM RT/PC (AIX or BSD); Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SVR3, SVR4, & m88kbcs); National Semiconductor 32K (Genix); NeXT (BSD or Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep 3.0); Prime EXL (SysV); Pyramid (BSD); Sequent Symmetry (BSD); SGI Iris 4D (Irix 4.x & 5.x); Sony News/RISC (NewsOS); Starrdent i860 (SysV); Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10 & Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris 2.0--2.3); Tadpole 68k (SysV); Tektronix XD88 (SVR3) & 4300 (BSD); & Titan P2 & P3 (SysV). In operating system order: AIX (i386, RS6000, RT/PC); 4.1, 4.2, 4.3BSD (i386, i860, Convex, Gould Power Node & NP1, HP9000 series 300, NeXT, Pyramid, Symmetry, Tektronix 4300, RT/PC); DG/UX (Aviion); Esix (i386); FreeBSD (i386); Genix (ns32k); GNU/Linux (i386); HP-UX 7, 8, 9 (HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800, but not 500); Irix 4 & 5 (Iris 4D); ISC (i386); Mach 2 & 3 (i386, NeXT); MS-DOS (see section MS-DOS Diskettes & section MS-DOS CD-ROM); NetBSD (i386, HP9000 series 300); SCO 3.2v4 (i386); SVR2 (Bull sps7); SVR3 (Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn, Motorola Delta 147 & 187, Tektronix XD88); SVR4 (Motorola Delta 147 & 187, Stardent i860); Solaris 2 (SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10, Classic); SunOS 4.0, 4.1 (Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10 & Classic); Ultrix 4.2 (DEC MIPS); Windows NT; & Xenix (i386). Other configurations supported by Emacs 18 should work with few changes in Emacs 19; as users tell us more about their experiences with different systems, we will augment the list. Also see section Forthcoming GNUs.
esis an extensible shell based on
rcwith first class functions, lexical scope, exceptions, and rich return values (i.e., functions can return values other than just numbers). Like
rc, it is great for both interactive use and for scripting, particularly since its quoting rules are much less baroque than the C or Bourne shells.
f2cconverts Fortran-77 source files into C or C++, which can be compiled with GCC. You can get bug fixes by FTP from site
netlib.att.comor by email from
email@example.com. The fixes are summarized in the file `/netlib/f2c/changes.Z'. See section Forthcoming GNUs, for information about GNU Fortran.
- Fileutils (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
The fileutils work on files:
vdir. Only some of these are on the section Selected Utilities Diskettes.
- Findutils (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
findis frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations on them. Also included are
xargs, which applies a command to a list of files, and
locate, which scans a database for file names that match a pattern.
- Finger (SrcCD, UtilT) GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs. For sites with many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger server host, and other hosts at that site configured as finger clients. The server host collects information about who is logged in to the clients. To finger a user on any host at a GNU Finger site, a single query gets useful information. GNU Finger supports many customization features, including per--user customization.
flex(DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD, UtilD)
flexis a replacement for the
flexwas written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and generates far more efficient scanners than
lexdoes. Source for the Flex Manual and reference card are included. See section GNU Documentation.
- FlexFAX (UtilT) FlexFAX is a facsimile system for Unix systems. It supports sending, receiving, and polled retrieval of facsimile, as well as transparent shared data use of the modem. Information is also available on the World Wide Web at URL: `http://www.vix.com/flexfax/'.
- Fontutils (SrcCD, UtilT)
The fontutils create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX, starting
with a scanned type image and converting the bitmaps to outlines. They
also contain general conversion programs and other utilities.
Fontutils programs include:
- GAWK (DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD)
GAWK is upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX versions
awk. It also provides several useful extensions not found in other
awkimplementations. Texinfo source for the GAWK Manual comes with the software. See section GNU Documentation.
- GCC (BinCD, DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD, VMSCompT)
Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports multiple languages; the source
file name suffix or a compiler option selects the language. The GNU C
Compiler distribution includes support for C, C++ and Objective-C.
Support for Objective-C was donated by NeXT. The runtime support needed to
run Objective-C programs is now distributed with GCC (this does not include
any Objective-C classes aside from
object). As much as possible, G++ is kept compatible with the evolving draft ANSI standard, but not with
cfront(AT&T's compiler), which has been diverging from ANSI. The GNU C Compiler is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs automatic register allocation, common sub-expression elimination, invariant code motion from loops, induction variable optimizations, constant propagation and copy propagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail recursion elimination, integration of inline functions and frame pointer elimination, instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf function optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, a certain amount of common subexpression elimination (CSE) between basic blocks (though not all of the supported machine descriptions provide for scheduling or delay slots), a feature for assigning attributes to instructions, and many local optimizations that are automatically deduced from the machine description. Position-independent code is supported on the 68k, i386, i486, Pentium, Hitachi Slt, Hitachi H8/300, Clipper, 88k, SPARC & SPARClite. GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type
long long int). It supports extended floating point (type
long double) on the 68k; other machines will follow. GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions support, nonlocal gotos & taking the address of a label). GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF & OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable assembler. It can produce debugging information in these formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs & DWARF. GCC generates code for many CPUs, including: a29k, Alpha, ARM, AT&T DSP1610, Convex cN, Clipper, Elxsi, Fujitsu Gmicro, H8/300, HP--PA (1.0 and 1.1) i370, i386, i486, Pentium, i860, i960, m68k, m68020, m68030, m68040, m88k, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP, RS6000, SH, SPARC, SPARClite, VAX, & we32k. Operating systems supported include: AIX, ACIS, AOS, BSD, Clix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, Genix, GNU/Linux, HP-UX, ISC, Irix, Luna, LynxOS, Mach, Minix, NewsOS, OSF, OSF-Rose, RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS & Windows/NT. The old (version 1) machine descriptions for the Alliant, Tahoe and Spur (as well as a new port for the Tron) do not work, but are still included in the distribution in case someone wants to work on them. Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as easy as building a compiler for the same target machine. We no longer maintain version 1 of GCC, G++, or libg++. Texinfo source for the Using and Porting GNU CC manual, is included with GCC. See section Forthcoming GNUs, for plans for later releases of GCC.
- GDB (BinCD, DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, SrcCD)
In GDB (GNU DeBugger), object files and symbol tables are
read via the BFD library,
which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object file
formats (e.g., a.out & COFF). Other features include a rich command
language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and
watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression
changes). Exception handling, SunOS shared libraries and C++ multiple
inheritance are only supported when used with GCC version 2.
GDB has a command line user interface; GNU Emacs comes with
a GDB mode, and
xxgdbprovides an X interface (but it is not distributed or maintained by the FSF; FTP it from
ftp.x.orgin the `/contrib' directory). GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which (so far) has simulators for the Zilog Z8001/2, Hitachi H8/300, H8/500 & Super-H. GDB can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB targets a platform means that it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To say that GDB can host a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs. GDB can:
- target & host: Amiga 3000 (Amix), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD, HP-UX), HP 9000/700 (HP-UX), i386 (BSD, FreeBSD, GNU/Linux, LynxOS, NetBSD, SCO), IBM RS/6000 (AIX, LynxOS), Motorola Delta m88k (System V, CX/UX), PC532 (NetBSD), Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS), NCR 3000 (SVR4), SGI (Irix V3, V4, V5), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), SPARC (SunOS 4.1, Solaris, NetBSD, LynxOS) Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1), & Ultracomputer (a29k running Sym1).
- target, but not host: AMD 29000 (COFF & a.out), Fujitsu SPARClite, Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi SH, i960 (Nindy, VxWorks), m68k/m68332 (a.out, COFF, VxWorks), MIPS (IDT ecoff), & Z8000.
- host, but not target: IBM RT/PC (AIX), and HP/Apollo 68k (BSD).
gdbm(LangT, SrcCD, UtilD)
gdbmis the GNU replacement for the traditional
ndbmlibraries. It implements a database using quick lookup by hashing.
gdbmdoes not ordinarily need sparse file formats (unlike its Unix and BSD counterparts).
- Ghostscript (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT)
GNU Ghostscript is the GNU release of Ghostscript, which is an interpreter
for the Postscript graphics language (see section Forthcoming GNUs, for news on
The current version of GNU Ghostscript is 2.6.2. Features include the ability
to use the fonts provided by the platform on which Ghostscript runs (X
Window System and Microsoft Windows), resulting in much better-looking
screen displays; improved text file printing (like
enscript); a utility to extract the text from a Postscript language document; a much more reliable (and faster) Microsoft Windows implementation; support for Microsoft C/C++ 7.0; drivers for many new printers, including the SPARCprinter, and for TIFF/F (fax) file format; many more Postscript Level 2 facilities, including most of the color space facilities (but not patterns), and the ability to switch between Level 1 and Level 2 dynamically. Version 2.6.2 adds a LaserJet 4 driver and several important bug fixes to version 2.6.1. Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript language by writing directly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to a file for later printing (or to a bitmap file that you can manipulate with other graphics programs). Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also supports IBM PCs and compatibles with EGA, VGA, or SuperVGA graphics (but please do not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use PCs).
- Ghostview (SrcCD, UtilT)
firstname.lastname@example.org, has created Ghostview, a previewer for multi-page files with an X11 user interface. Ghostview and Ghostscript function as two cooperating programs; Ghostview creates a viewing window and Ghostscript draws in it.
gmp(LangT, SrcCD) GNU mp is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic on signed integers and rational numbers. It has a rich set of functions with a regular interface.
- GNATS (SrcCD, UtilT) GNATS (GNats: A Tracking System, not to be confused with GNAT, The GNU Ada Translator) is a bug-tracking system. It is based upon the paradigm of a central site or organization which receives problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic mail. Although it has been used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so far, it is sufficiently generalized so that it could be used for handling system administration issues, project management or any number of other applications.
gnuplot(SrcCD, UtilT, WdwsD)
gnuplotis an interactive program for plotting mathematical expressions and data. It handles both curves (2 dimensions) and surfaces (3 dimensions). Curiously, the program was neither written nor named for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence. GNU Emacs' Calc mode uses
- GnuGo (SrcCD, UtilT) GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); it is not yet very sophisticated.
gperfgenerates perfect hash tables. There are two implementations of
gperf, written in C and C++. Both produce hash functions in either C or C++.
- GNU Graphics (SrcCD, UtilT)
GNU Graphics is a system which produces x-y plots from ASCII or binary data.
It supports traditional Unix device independent plot files, Postscript and
Tektronix 4010 compatible output devices and plot previewing under the X
Window System. Features include output support in TekniCAD TDA and ln03
file formats; a
splineprogram replacement; examples of shell scripts using
plot; and a statistics toolkit. Ask Rich Murphey,
Rich@rice.edu, to help test/port it to anything beyond a SPARCstation.
- grep (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
This package has GNU
fgrepwhich output lines that match inputed patterns. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
- Groff (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT)
Groff is a document formatting system, which includes
drivers for Postscript, TeX
dviformat, and typewriter-like devices, as well as implementations of
troff, and the
mmmacro package is almost compatible with the DWB
mmmacros and has several extensions. Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley
memacros and an enhanced version of the X11
xditviewpreviewer. Written in C++, these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.5 or later. A driver for the LaserJet 4 series of printers is currently in test. Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo documentation, a
picpreprocessor for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to
pm(see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2; ask
email@example.com to get a copy) and an ASCII output class for
piccan be integrated with Texinfo. Questions and bug reports from users who have read the documentation provided with Groff can be sent to
gzip(DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, LspEmcT, SrcCD, UtilT) Some of the contents of our tape and FTP distributions are compressed. We have software on our tapes and FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to patent troubles with
compress, we have switched to another compression program,
gzip. (Prohibitions on programming like this are fought by the League for Programming Freedom, see section What Is the LPF?, for details.)
gzipcan expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented algorithm for compression which generally produces better results. It also expands files compressed with System V's
hello(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT) The GNU
helloprogram produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU General Public License, users are free to share and change it. Like any truly useful program,
hellocontains a built-in mail reader.
hp2xx(SrcCD, UtilT) GNU
hp2xxreads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster output formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer. Currently supported vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont and various special TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing only) for imports. Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, & HP-PCL (including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support). Previewers work under X11 (Unix), OS/2 (PM & full screen), MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC).
indent(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT) GNU
indentis a revision of the BSD version. By default, it formats C source according to the GNU coding standards. The BSD default, K&R and other formats are available as options. It is also possible to define your own format. GNU
indentis more robust and provides more functionality than other versions, e.g., it handles C++ comments.
- Ispell (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT) Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses" as replacements for unrecognized words. System & user-maintained dictionaries for multiple languages can be used. Standalone & GNU Emacs interfaces are available. Previously, the GNU Project had its own version of ispell ("Ispell 4.0"), but has dropped it for a parallel branch that has had more development ("Ispell 3.1"). The version numbers do not accurately reflect the lineage of these two branches; version 3 is more sophisticated.
- JACAL Not available from the FSF
JACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation and
simplification of equations and single and multiple-valued algebraic
expressions constructed of numbers, variables, radicals,
differential operators, and algebraic and holonomic functions. Vectors,
matrices, and tensors of these objects are also included.
JACAL was written in Scheme by Aubrey Jaffer. It comes with SCM, an IEEE
P1178 and R4RS compliant version of Scheme written in C. SCM runs on
Amiga, Atari-ST, MS-DOS, OS/2, NOS/VE, Unicos, VMS, Unix, and similar
systems. SLIB is a portable Scheme library used by JACAL.
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any media. To receive an IBM PC
floppy disk with the source and executable files, send $99.00 to:
Aubrey Jaffer 84 Pleasant Street Wakefield, MA 01880-1846 USA
less(SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
lessis a display paginator similar to
pgbut with various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that most pagers lack.
m4(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT) GNU
m4is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor. It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (for example, handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros).
m4also has built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc.
make(BinCD, DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, LspEmcT, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT) GNU
makesupports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure features of the BSD and System V versions of
make, as well as many of our own extensions. GNU extensions include long options, parallel compilation, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution and powerful text manipulation functions. Recent versions have improved error reporting and added support for the popular `+=' syntax to append more text to a variable's definition. Texinfo source for the Make Manual comes with the program. See section GNU Documentation. GNU
makeis on several of our tapes because some system vendors supply no
makeutility at all, and some native
makeprograms lack the
VPATHfeature essential for using the GNU configure system to its full extent. The GNU
makesources have a shell script to build
makeitself on such systems. DJ Delorie has ported GNU
maketo MS-DOS using the GO32 extender. MS-DOS binaries for
makeare available with the DJGPP distribution.
- MandelSpawn (SrcCD, UtilT) A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System.
- mtools (SrcCD, UtilT) mtools is a set of public domain programs to allow Unix systems to read, write and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (usually a diskette).
- MULE (EmcsD, DosCD, SrcCD) MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs. It can handle many character sets at once including Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, Greek, the ISO Latin-1 through Latin-5 character sets, Ukrainian, Arabic, Hebrew, Russian, and other Cyrillic alphabets. A text buffer in MULE can contain a mixture of characters from these languages. To input any of these characters, you can use various input methods provided by MULE itself. In addition, if you use MULE under some terminal emulators (kterm, cxterm, or exterm), you can use its input methods. MULE is being merged into GNU Emacs. See section GNU and Other Free Software in Japan, for more information about MULE.
- NetHack (SrcCD, UtilT) NetHack is a display-oriented adventure game similar to Rogue. Both ASCII and X displays are supported.
- NIH Class Library (LangT, SrcCD) The NIH Class Library (formerly known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented Program Support) is a portable collection of C++ classes, similar to those in Smalltalk-80, which has been developed by Keith Gorlen of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), using the C++ programming language.
nviis a free implementation of the
exUnix editor. It has most of the functionality of the original
ex, except "open" mode & the
lispoption, which will be added. Enhancements over
exinclude split screens with multiple buffers, handling 8-bit data, infinite file & line lengths, tag stacks, infinite undo & extended regular expressions. It runs under GNU/Linux, BSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD, BSDI, AIX, HP-UX, DGUX, IRIX, PSF, PTX, Solaris, SunOS, Ultrix, Unixware & should port easily to many other systems.
- GNU Objective-C Library (LangT, SrcCD)
The GNU Objective-C Class Library (
libobjects) is a library of general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-C objects written by R. Andrew McCallum. It includes collection objects for maintaining groups of objects and C types, streams for I/O to various destinations, coders for formatting objects and C types to streams, ports for network packet transmission, distributed objects (remote object messaging), pseudo-random number generators, and time handling facilities. It is known to work on i386, i486, Pentium. m68k, SPARC, MIPS, & RS6000. Contact the author at `firstname.lastname@example.org'.
OBSTis a persistent object management system with bindings to C++.
OBSTsupports incremental loading of methods. Its graphical tools require the X Window System. It features a hands-on tutorial including sample programs. It compiles with g++ and should install easily on most Unix platforms.
- Octave (LangT, SrcCD)
Octave is a high-level language that is primarily intended for numerical
computations. It provides a convenient command line interface for solving
linear and nonlinear problems numerically.
Octave does arithmetic for real and complex scalars and matrices,
solves sets of nonlinear algebraic equations,
integrates systems of ordinary differential and differential-algebraic
and integrates functions over finite and infinite intervals.
Send queries and bug reports to:
email@example.com. Source is included for a 150+ page Texinfo manual, which is not yet published by the FSF.
- Oleo (SrcCD, UtilT) Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive spreadsheets). It supports the X Window System and character-based terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable. Under X and in Postscript output, Oleo supports multiple, variable width fonts. See section Forthcoming GNUs, for the plans for later releases of Oleo.
p2cis a Pascal-to-C translator written by Dave Gillespie. It recognizes many Pascal dialects including Turbo, HP, VAX, and ISO, and produces readable, maintainable, portable C.
patch(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT)
patchis our version of Larry Wall's program to take
diff's output and apply those differences to an original file to generate the modified version.
- PCL (LspEmcT, SrcCD) PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common Lisp Object System. It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned above.
perl(LangT, SrcCD) Larry Wall's
perlcombines the features and capabilities of
shand C, as well as interfaces to the Unix system calls and many C library routines.
ptx(SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT) GNU
ptxis our version of the traditional permuted index generator. It handles multiple input files at once, produces TeX compatible output, & outputs readable KWIC (KeyWords In Context) indexes. It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once.
rcis a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than
csh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells. It's intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writing scripts. It inspired the shell
- RCS (SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control &
management of software projects. When used with GNU
diff, RCS can handle binary files (executables, object files, 8-bit data, etc). Also see the item about CVS in this section.
recode(SrcCD, UtilT) GNU
recodeconverts files between character sets and usages. When exact transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of the offending characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or produces nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are supported.
- regex (LangT, SrcCD)
The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for
internationalization features. In the past, it has been included in
many GNU programs which do regular expression matching. Now it is
available separately. An alternative regular expression package,
rx, comes with
sed; it has the potential to be faster than
regexin most cases, but still needs work.
- Scheme (SchmT, SrcCD) For information about Scheme, see section Scheme Tape.
screenis a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate "screens" (ttys) on a single physical character-based terminal. Each virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ANSI X3.64 and ISO 2022 functions. Arbitrary keyboard input translation is also supported.
screensessions can be detached and resumed later on a different terminal type.
sed(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
sedis a stream-oriented version of
sedcomes with the
rxlibrary, a faster version of
regex(see section Forthcoming GNUs).
- Sharutils (SrcCD, UtilT)
sharmakes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services, while
unsharhelps unpack these shell archives after reception.
uuencodeprepares a file for transmission over an electronic channel which ignores or otherwise mangles the high order bit of bytes, while
uudecodedoes the converse transformation.
- Shellutils (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT)
Use shellutils interactively or in shell scripts:
- GNU Shogi (SrcCD, UtilT) Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is that captured pieces can be returned into play. GNU Shogi has been created by modifying GNU Chess; GNU Shogi implements the same features as GNU Chess and uses similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences of partial board patterns can be introduced in order to help the program play toward specific opening patterns. There are both character and X display interfaces. GNU Shogi is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.
- Smalltalk (LangT, SrcCD) GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language system written in highly portable C. It has been successfully ported to many Unix and some other platforms, including DOS (but these non-Unix ports are not available from the FSF). Current features include a binary image save capability, the ability to invoke user-written C code and pass parameters to it, a GNU Emacs editing mode, a version of the X protocol invocable from Smalltalk, optional byte-code compilation tracing and byte-code execution tracing, and automatically loaded per-user initialization files. It implements all of the classes and protocol in the Smalltalk-80 book "Smalltalk-80: The Language", except for the graphic user interface (`GUI') related classes. See section Forthcoming GNUs, for plans for later releases of Smalltalk.
- Superopt (LangT, SrcCD)
Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive
generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for a
given function. You provide the GNU superoptimizer,
gso, a function, a CPU to generate code for, and how many instructions you can accept. Its application in GCC is described in the ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 proceedings. Superopt supports: SPARC, m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM RS/6000, AMD 29000, Intel 80x86, Pyramid, DEC Alpha, & HP--PA.
tar(SrcCD, UtilT) GNU
tarincludes multivolume support, the ability to archive sparse files, automatic archive compression/decompression, remote archives and special features that allow
tarto be used for incremental and full backups. Unfortunately, GNU
tarimplements an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 ustar standard which is different from the final standard. Adding support for the new changes in a backward-compatible fashion is not trivial.
- Termcap Library (SrcCD, UtilT) The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is source for the Termcap Manual in Texinfo format. See section GNU Documentation.
- TeX (SrcCD)
TeX is a document formatting system that handles complicated
typesetting, including mathematics. It is GNU's standard text formatter.
You can obtain TeX from the University of Washington, which maintains and
supports a tape distribution of TeX for Unix systems. The core material
consists of Karl Berry's
web2cTeX package, the sources for which are available via anonymous ftp; retrieval instructions are in `pub/tex/unixtex.ftp' on
ftp.cs.umb.edu. If you receive any installation support from the University of Washington, please consider sending them a donation. To order a full distribution written in
taron either a 1/4inch 4-track QIC-24 cartridge or a 4mm DAT cartridge, send $210.00 to:
Pierre A. MacKay Department of Classics DH-10, Denny Hall 218 University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 USA Electronic-Mail:Please make checks payable to the University of Washington. Do not specify any other payee. That causes accounting difficulties. Checks must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank. Prepaid orders are the only orders that can now be handled. Overseas sites: please add to the base cost $20.00 for shipment via air parcel post, or $30.00 for shipment via courier. Please check with the above for current prices and formats.
- Texinfo (DjgppD, DosCD, LangT, LspEmcT, SrcCD, UtilD, UtilT)
Texinfo is a set of utilities which generate both printed manuals and
online hypertext documentation (called "Info"). There are also
programs for reading online Info documents. Version 3 has both GNU Emacs
Lisp and standalone programs written in C or shell script. Texinfo mode
for GNU Emacs enables easy editing and updating of Texinfo files.
Programs provided include
fixfonts. Source for the Texinfo Manual is included. See section GNU Documentation.
- Textutils (DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT)
The Textutils programs manipulate textual data. They include:
- Tile Forth (LangT, SrcCD) Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth--83 standard written in C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems, and extended with "any" C-function (graphics, windowing, etc). Many Forth libraries with full documentation are available including ones for top-down parsing, multi-threads, and object oriented programming.
timeis used to report statistics (usually from a shell) about the amount of user, system and real time used by a process. On some systems it also reports memory usage, page faults, and other statistics.
tputis a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal capabilities. Our
tputuses the Termcap database, instead of Terminfo as most others do.
- UUCP (SrcCD, UtilT)
This version of UUCP was written by Ian Lance Taylor, and is GNU's standard
UUCP system. It supports the
v(in all window and packet sizes),
e, Zmodem and two new bidirectional (
j) protocols. If you have a Berkeley sockets library, it can make TCP connections. If you have TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections. Source is included for a Texinfo manual, which is not yet published by the FSF.
wdiff(DjgppD, DosCD, SrcCD, UtilT)
wdiffis a front-end to GNU
diff. It compares two files, finding the words deleted or added to the first to make the second. It has many output formats and works well with terminals and pagers.
wdiffis very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs have been refilled.
Yglemulates SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library under X11. It runs under GNU/Linux with XFree, AIX 3.2, ConvexOS, HP-UX 7.0/8.0/9.0, SunOS and many others.
Program/Package Cross Reference
Here is a list of what package each GNU program or library is in. You can anonymously FTP a full list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software for a list).
* a2p perl * a2x xopt * ac bsd44 * accton bsd44 * acl bsd44 * acm acm * acms acm * addftinfo Groff * adventure bsd44 * afm2tfm TeX * amd bsd44 * ansitape bsd44 * AnswerGarden xopt * apply bsd44 * appres xreq * apropos bsd44 * ar Binutils * arithmetic bsd44 * arp bsd44 * atc bsd44 * autoconf Autoconf * autoheader Autoconf * autoreconf Autoconf * autoscan Autoconf * autoupdate Autoconf * auto_box xopt * auto_box xreq * b2m Emacs * backgammon bsd44 * bad144 bsd44 * badsect bsd44 * banner bsd44 * basename Shellutils * bash BASH * battlestar bsd44 * bc bc * bcd bsd44 * bdes bsd44 * bdftops Ghostscript * beach_ball xopt * beach_ball xreq * beach_ball2 xopt * bibtex TeX * biff bsd44 * bison Bison * bitmap xreq * boggle bsd44 * bpltobzr Fontutils * bugfiler bsd44 * build ispell * bzrto Fontutils * c++ GCC * c++filt Binutils * c2ph perl * ca100 xopt * caeser bsd44 * cal bsd44 * calendar bsd44 * canfield bsd44 * cat Textutils * cbars wdiff * cc GCC * cc1 GCC * cc1obj GCC * cc1plus GCC * cccp GCC * charspace Fontutils * checknr bsd44 * chess bsd44 * chflags bsd44 * chgrp Fileutils * ching bsd44 * chmod Fileutils * chown Fileutils * chpass bsd44 * chroot bsd44 * ci RCS * cksum Textutils * clisp CLISP * clri bsd44 * cmail xboard * cmmf TeX * cmodext xopt * cmp Diffutils * co RCS * col bsd44 * colcrt bsd44 * colrm bsd44 * column bsd44 * comm Textutils * compress bsd44 * comsat bsd44 * connectd bsd44 * cp Fileutils * cpicker xopt * cpio cpio * cpp GCC * cppstdin perl * cribbage bsd44 * crock xopt * csh bsd44 * csplit Textutils * ctags Emacs * ctwm xopt * cu UUCP * cut Textutils * cvs CVS * cvscheck CVS * cvtmail Emacs * cxterm xopt * d Fileutils * date Shellutils * dc bc * dd Fileutils * delatex TeX * demangle Binutils * descend CVS * detex TeX * df Fileutils * diff Diffutils * diff3 Diffutils * digest-doc Emacs * dipress bsd44 * dir Fileutils * dirname Shellutils * dish xopt * disklabel bsd44 * diskpart bsd44 * dld dld * dm bsd44 * dmesg bsd44 * doschk doschk * dox xopt * du Fileutils * dump bsd44 * dumpfs bsd44 * dvi2tty TeX * dvicopy TeX * dvips TeX * dvitype TeX * ecc ecc * echo Shellutils * ed ed * edit-pr GNATS * editres xreq * edquota bsd44 * eeprom bsd44 * egrep grep * emacs Emacs * emacsclient Emacs * emacsserver Emacs * emacstool Emacs * emu xopt * env Shellutils * eqn Groff * error bsd44 * es es * esdebug es * etags Emacs * ex nvi * expand Textutils * expect DejaGnu * expr Shellutils * exterm xopt * f2c f2c * factor bsd44 * fakemail Emacs * false Shellutils * fastboot bsd44 * fax2ps FlexFAX * faxalter FlexFAX * faxanswer FlexFAX * faxcover FlexFAX * faxd FlexFAX * faxd.recv FlexFAX * faxmail FlexFAX * faxquit FlexFAX * faxrcvd FlexFAX * faxrm FlexFAX * faxstat FlexFAX * fc f2c * fdraw xopt * fgrep grep * file bsd44 * find Findutils * find2perl perl * finger finger * fingerd finger * fish bsd44 * fixfonts Texinfo * fixinc.svr4 GCC * fixincludes GCC * flex flex * fmt bsd44 * fold Textutils * font2c Ghostscript * fontconvert Fontutils * forth Tile Forth * forthicon Tile Forth * forthtool Tile Forth * fortune bsd44 * fpr bsd44 * freq ispell * freqtbl ispell * from bsd44 * fsck bsd44 * fsplit bsd44 * fstat bsd44 * ftp bsd44 * ftpd bsd44 * g++ GCC * gas Binutils * gawk Gawk * gcc GCC * gcore bsd44 * gdb GDB * genclass libg++ * getty bsd44 * gftodvi TeX * gftopk TeX * gftype TeX * ghostview Ghostview * gnats GNATS * gnuchess Chess * gnuchessc Chess * gnuchessn Chess * gnuchessr Chess * gnuchessx Chess * gnupdisp Shogi * gnuplot gnuplot * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot * gnushogi Shogi * gnushogir Shogi * gnushogix Shogi * go GnuGo * gpc xopt * gpc xreq * gperf gperf * gperf libg++ * gprof Binutils * graph Graphics * grep grep * grodvi Groff * groff Groff * grops Groff * grotty Groff * groups Shellutils * gs Ghostscript * gsbj Ghostscript * gsdj Ghostscript * gslj Ghostscript * gslp Ghostscript * gsnd Ghostscript * gsrenderfont Fontutils * gunzip gzip * gwm xopt * gzexe gzip * gzip gzip * h2ph perl * h2pl perl * hack bsd44 * hangman bsd44 * head Textutils * hello hello * hexdump bsd44 * hexl Emacs * hostname Shellutils * hp2xx hp2xx * hterm xopt * i18nOlwmV2 xopt * i2mif xopt * ico xopt * ico xreq * id Shellutils * ident RCS * ifconfig bsd44 * ifnames Autoconf * ImageMagick xopt * imageto Fontutils * iman xopt * imgrotate Fontutils * indent indent * indxbib Groff * inetd bsd44 * info Texinfo * inimf TeX * init bsd44 * initex TeX * inn bsd44 * install Fileutils * iostat bsd44 * ispell ispell * ixterm xopt * ixx xopt * join Textutils * jot bsd44 * jove bsd44 * kdestroy bsd44 * kdump bsd44 * kermit bsd44 * kgames xopt * kgmon bsd44 * kill bsd44 * kinit bsd44 * kinput2 xopt * klist bsd44 * kpasswdd bsd44 * ksrvtgt bsd44 * kterm xopt * ktrace bsd44 * lam bsd44 * larn bsd44 * lasergnu gnuplot * last bsd44 * lastcomm bsd44 * latex TeX * lclock xopt * ld Binutils * leave bsd44 * less less * lesskey less * libbfd.a Binutils * libbfd.a GAS * libbfd.a GDB * libbzr.a Fontutils * libc.a C Library * libcompat.a bsd44 * libcurses.a bsd44 * libcurses.a nvi * libedit.a bsd44 * libF77.a f2c * libg++.a libg++ * libgdbm.a gdbm * libgf.a Fontutils * libgmp.a gmp * libI77.a f2c * libkvm.a bsd44 * libm.a bsd44 * libnihcl.a NIHCL * libnihclmi.a NIHCL * libnihclvec.a NIHCL * libnls.a xreq * liboctave.a Octave * liboldX.a xreq * libpbm.a Fontutils * libPEXt.a xopt * libpk.a Fontutils * libresolv.a bsd44 * librpc.a bsd44 * libtcl.a DejaGnu * libtelnet.a bsd44 * libterm.a bsd44 * libtermcap.a Termcap * libtfm.a Fontutils * libutil.a bsd44 * libWc.a xopt * libwidgets.a Fontutils * libX.a xreq * libXau.a xreq * libXaw.a xreq * libXcp.a xopt * libXcu.a xopt * libXdmcp.a xreq * libXmp.a xopt * libXmu.a xreq * libXO.a xopt * libXop.a xopt * libXp.a xopt * libXpex.a xopt * libXt.a xopt * libXt.a xreq * libXwchar.a xopt * liby.a bsd44 * libYgl.a Ygl * limn Fontutils * listres xopt * listres xreq * lkbib Groff * ln Fileutils * locate Findutils * lock bsd44 * logger bsd44 * login bsd44 * logname Shellutils * look ispell * lookbib Groff * lorder bsd44 * lpr bsd44 * ls Fileutils * m4 m4 * mail bsd44 * make Make * make-docfile Emacs * make-path Emacs * makeindex TeX * makeinfo Texinfo * MakeTeXPK TeX * man bsd44 * man-macros Groff * mattrib mtools * maze xopt * maze xreq * mazewar xopt * mcd mtools * mcopy mtools * mdel mtools * mdir mtools * me-macros Groff * merge RCS * mesg bsd44 * mf TeX * mformat mtools * mft TeX * mgdiff xopt * mh bsd44 * mille bsd44 * mkdep bsd44 * mkdir Fileutils * mkfifo Fileutils * mklocale bsd44 * mkmanifest mtools * mkmf bsd44 * mkmodules CVS * mknod Fileutils * mkstr bsd44 * mlabel mtools * mm-macros Groff * mmd mtools * monop bsd44 * more bsd44 * morse bsd44 * mount bsd44 * mountd bsd44 * movemail Emacs * mprof bsd44 * mrd mtools * mread mtools * mren mtools * ms-macros Groff * msgs bsd44 * mt cpio * mterm xopt * mtree bsd44 * mtype mtools * mule MULE * muncher xopt * mv Fileutils * mvdir Fileutils * mwrite mtools * nethack Nethack * netstat bsd44 * newfs bsd44 * nfsd bsd44 * nfsiod bsd44 * nfsstat bsd44 * nice Shellutils * nl Textutils * nlmconv Binutils * nm Binutils * nohup Shellutils * notify FlexFAX * nroff Groff * number bsd44 * objc GCC * objcopy Binutils * objdump Binutils * objective-c GCC * obst-boot OBST * obst-CC OBST * obst-cct OBST * obst-cgc OBST * obst-cmp OBST * obst-cnt OBST * obst-cpcnt OBST * obst-csz OBST * obst-dir OBST * obst-dmp OBST * obst-gen OBST * obst-gsh OBST * obst-init OBST * obst-scp OBST * obst-sil OBST * obst-stf OBST * oclock xreq * octave Octave * od Textutils * oleo Oleo * ora-examples xopt * p2c p2c * pagesize bsd44 * palette xopt * pascal bsd44 * passwd bsd44 * paste Textutils * patch patch * patgen TeX * pathalias bsd44 * pathchk Shellutils * pax bsd44 * pbmplus xopt * perl perl * pfbtops Groff * phantasia bsd44 * pic Groff * pig bsd44 * ping bsd44 * pixedit xopt * pixmap xopt * pktogf TeX * pktype TeX * plaid xopt * plot2fig Graphics * plot2plot Graphics * plot2ps Graphics * plot2tek Graphics * pltotf TeX * pollrcvd FlexFAX * pom bsd44 * pooltype TeX * portmap bsd44 * ppt bsd44 * pr Textutils * pr-addr GNATS * pr-edit GNATS * primes bsd44 * printenv Shellutils * printf Shellutils * protoize GCC * ps bsd44 * ps2ascii Ghostscript * ps2epsi Ghostscript * ps2fax FlexFAX * psbb Groff * pstat bsd44 * psycho xopt * ptx ptx * pubdic+ xopt * puzzle xopt * puzzle xreq * pwd Shellutils * pyramid xopt * query-pr GNATS * quiz bsd44 * quot bsd44 * quota bsd44 * quotacheck bsd44 * quotaon bsd44 * rain bsd44 * random bsd44 * ranlib Binutils * rbootd bsd44 * rc rc * rcp bsd44 * rcs RCS * rcs-to-cvs CVS * rcs2log Emacs * rcsdiff RCS * rcsfreeze RCS * rcsmerge RCS * rdist bsd44 * reboot bsd44 * recode recode * recvstats FlexFAX * refer Groff * renice bsd44 * repquota bsd44 * restore bsd44 * rev bsd44 * rexecd bsd44 * rlog RCS * rlogin bsd44 * rlogind bsd44 * rm Fileutils * rmail bsd44 * rmdir Fileutils * rmt cpio * rmt tar * robots bsd44 * rogue bsd44 * route bsd44 * routed bsd44 * rr xopt * rs bsd44 * rsh bsd44 * rshd bsd44 * runtest DejaGnu * runtest.exp DejaGnu * ruptime bsd44 * rwho bsd44 * rwhod bsd44 * s2p perl * sail bsd44 * savecore bsd44 * sc bsd44 * sccs bsd44 * sccs2rcs CVS * scdisp xopt * screen screen * script bsd44 * scsiformat bsd44 * sctext xopt * sdiff Diffutils * sed sed * send-pr GNATS * sendfax FlexFAX * sendmail bsd44 * sgi2fax FlexFAX * sh bsd44 * shar Sharutils * shinbun xopt * shogi Shogi * showfont xopt * showmount bsd44 * shutdown bsd44 * size Binutils * sj3 xopt * sjxa xopt * slattach bsd44 * sleep Shellutils * sliplogin bsd44 * snake bsd44 * snftobdf xopt * soelim Groff * sort Textutils * sos2obst OBST * spider xopt * split Textutils * startslip bsd44 * stf OBST * strings Binutils * strip Binutils * stty Shellutils * su Shellutils * sum Textutils * superopt Superopt * swapon bsd44 * sync bsd44 * sysctl bsd44 * syslogd bsd44 * systat bsd44 * tac Textutils * tail Textutils * taintperl perl * talk bsd44 * talkd bsd44 * tangle TeX * tar tar * tbl Groff * tcl DejaGnu * tclsh DejaGnu * tcopy bsd44 * tcp Emacs * tee Shellutils * tek2plot Graphics * telnet bsd44 * telnetd bsd44 * test Shellutils * test-g++ DejaGnu * test-tool DejaGnu * tetris bsd44 * tex TeX * tex3patch Texinfo * texi2dvi Texinfo * texindex Texinfo * texspell TeX * textfmt FlexFAX * tfmtodit Groff * tftopl TeX * tftp bsd44 * tftpd bsd44 * tgrind TeX * time time * timed bsd44 * timer Emacs * timex xopt * tip bsd44 * tkpostage xopt * tn3270 bsd44 * touch Fileutils * tput tput * tr Textutils * traceroute bsd44 * transcript FlexFAX * transfig xopt * trek bsd44 * trn3 bsd44 * troff Groff * trpt bsd44 * trsp bsd44 * true Shellutils * tset bsd44 * tsort bsd44 * tty Shellutils * tunefs bsd44 * tvtwm xopt * twm xreq * ul bsd44 * umount bsd44 * uname Shellutils * uncompress gzip * unexpand Textutils * unifdef bsd44 * uniq Textutils * unprotoize GCC * unshar Sharutils * unvis bsd44 * update bsd44 * updatedb Findutils * users Shellutils * uuchk UUCP * uucico UUCP * uuconv UUCP * uucp UUCP * uucpd bsd44 * uudecode Sharutils * uudir UUCP * uuencode Sharutils * uulog UUCP * uuname UUCP * uupick UUCP * uurate UUCP * uusched UUCP * uustat UUCP * uuto UUCP * uux UUCP * uuxqt UUCP * v Fileutils * vacation bsd44 * vandal xopt * vcdiff Emacs * vdir Fileutils * vftovp TeX * vgrind bsd44 * vi nvi * viewres xopt * viewres xreq * vine xopt * vipw bsd44 * virmf TeX * virtex TeX * vis bsd44 * vmstat bsd44 * vptovf TeX * w bsd44 * wakeup Emacs * wall bsd44 * wargames bsd44 * wc Textutils * wdiff wdiff * weave TeX * what bsd44 * whatis bsd44 * whereis bsd44 * who Shellutils * whoami Shellutils * whois bsd44 * window bsd44 * winterp xopt * wish DejaGnu * worm bsd44 * worms bsd44 * write bsd44 * wump bsd44 * x11perf xreq * x2p perl * xalarm xopt * xancur xopt * xargs Findutils * xauth xreq * xbfe Fontutils * xbiff xopt * xbiff xreq * xboard xboard * xboing xopt * xbuffy3 xopt * xcalc xopt * xcalc xreq * xcalendar xopt * xcdplayer xopt * xcell xopt * xclipboard xreq * xclock xreq * xcmdmenu xopt * xcms xopt * xcmsdb xreq * xcmstest xreq * xco xopt * xcolorize xopt * xcolors xopt * xconsole xreq * xcrtca xopt * xdaliclock xopt * xdiary xopt * xditview Groff * xditview xopt * xditview xreq * xdm xreq * xdpyinfo xreq * xdu xopt * xdvi TeX * xdvi xopt * xdvorak xopt * xearth xopt * xed xopt * xedit xopt * xedit xreq * xev xopt * xev xreq * xexit xopt * xeyes xopt * xeyes xreq * xfd xreq * xfed xopt * xfedor xopt * xfeoak xopt * xferstats FlexFAX * xfig xopt * xfontsel xopt * xfontsel xreq * xforecast xopt * xgas xopt * xgas xreq * xgc xopt * xgc xreq * xhearts xopt * xhelp xopt * xhost xreq * xinit xreq * xkeycaps xopt * xkill xreq * xlax xopt * xlayout xopt * xlbiff xopt * xless xopt * xload xopt * xload xreq * xlogin xopt * xlogo xreq * xlsatoms xreq * xlsclients xreq * xlsfonts xreq * xmag xreq * xmail xopt * xmailbox xopt * xmailwatcher xopt * xman xopt * xman xreq * xmandel xopt * xmessage xopt * xmeter xopt * xmh xreq * xmh-icons xopt * xmh.editor xopt * xmodmap xreq * xmon xopt * xmove xopt * xmphone xopt * xpd xopt * xphoon xopt * xpipeman xopt * xplot Graphics * xpostit xopt * xpr xopt * xpr xreq * xprompt xopt * xproof xopt * xprop xreq * xpserv xopt * xrdb xreq * xrefresh xreq * xrsh xopt * xrubik xopt * xrunclient xopt * xscope xopt * xscreensaver xopt * xsession xopt * xset xreq * xsetroot xreq * xshogi xshogi * xstdcmap xreq * xstr bsd44 * xtalk xopt * xterm xreq * xterm_color xopt * xtetris xopt * xTeXcad.13 xopt * xtiff xopt * xtree xopt * xtv xopt * xwd xreq * xwininfo xreq * xwud xreq * yacc bsd44 * yes Shellutils * youbin xopt * yow Emacs * zcat gzip * zcmp gzip * zdiff gzip * zforce gzip * zgrep gzip * zmore gzip * znew gzip * [ Shellutils
We offer Unix
source code on tapes in
tar format on these media:
- 4mm DAT cartridges
- 8mm Exabyte cartridges
- Sun DC300XLP QIC-24 1/4in cartridges (readable on some other systems)
- Hewlett-Packard 16-track DC600HC 1/4in cartridges
- IBM RS/6000 QIC-150 1/4in cartridges (readable on some other systems)
- 1600bpi 9-track 1/2in reel tape
The contents of the reel and various cartridge tapes for Unix systems are the same (except for the RS/6000 Emacs tape, which also has executables for Emacs); only the media are different. For pricing information, see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form. Source code for the manuals and reference cards is included (see section GNU Documentation).
Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed with
make them fit. Refer to the top-level `README' file at the
beginning of each tape for instructions on uncompressing them.
unpack do not work!
This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters, and related programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).
* Binutils 2.5.2 * Bison 1.22 * C Library 1.09 * DejaGnu 1.2 * dld 3.2.3 * ecc 1.2.1 * f2c 1994.11.03 * flex 2.4.7 * Gawk 2.15.5 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.6.3 * GDB 4.13 * gdbm 1.7.3 * gmp 1.3.2 * gperf 2.1a * gzip 1.2.4 * indent 1.9.1 * libg++ 2.6.1 * libobjects 0.1.0 * Make 3.72.1 * NIHCL 3.0 * OBST 3.4 * Octave 1.0 * p2c 1.20 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.000 * regex 0.12 * rx 0.05 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.3 * Texinfo 3.1 * Tile Forth 2.1
Lisps and Emacs Tape
This tape has Common Lisp systems and libraries, GNU Emacs, assorted extensions that work with GNU Emacs, and a few other important utilities.
* Calc 2.02c * CLISP 1994.10.26 * Common Lisp 1.1 * elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.28 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manaul, Ed. 2.3 * gzip 1.2.4 * Make 3.72.1 * MULE 2.1 * PCL 1993.03.18 * Texinfo 3.1
This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities and miscellaneous applications.
* acm 4.6 * Autoconf 1.11 * Autoconf 2.1 * BASH 1.14.2 * bc 1.03 * Chess 4.0.73 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * dc 0.2 * Diffutils 2.7 * doschk 1.1 * ed 0.2 * es 0.84 * Fileutils 3.12 * Findutils 4.1 * finger 1.37 * FlexFAX 188.8.131.52 * Fontutils 0.6 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview 1.5 * GNATS 3.2 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * ispell 3.1.13 * m4 1.3 * Make 3.72.1 * mkisofs 1.01 * mm 1.07 * mtools 2.0.7 * Nethack 3.1.3 * nvi 1.34 * Oleo 1.6 * patch 2.1 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 184.108.40.206 * recode 3.4 * saoimage 1.08 * screen 3.5.2 * screen 3.6.0 * sed 1.18 & 2.05 * Sharutils 4.1 * Shellutils 1.12 * Shogi 1.2.02 * tar 1.11.2 * Termcap 1.2 * Texinfo 3.1 * Textutils 1.11 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.05 * wdiff 0.04 * xboard 3.1.1 * xshogi 1.2.02 * Ygl 2.9
Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of programming, and to research new parallel programming constructs and compilation techniques.
This tape contains MIT Scheme 7.1, which conforms to the "Revised^4 Report On the Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848b), for which TeX source is included. It is written partly in C, but is presently hard to bootstrap. Binaries that can be used to bootstrap Scheme are available for:
- HP 9000 series 300, 400, 700 & 800 running HP-UX 7.0 or 8.0
- NeXT running NeXT OS 1.0 or 2.0
- Sun-3 or Sun-4 running SunOS 4.1
- DECstation 3100/5100 running Ultrix 4.0
- Sony NeWS-3250 running NEWS OS 5.01
- Vax running 4.3BSD
If your system is not on this list and you don't enjoy the bootstrap challenge, see the JACAL item in section GNU Software.
The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 6 of the X Window System. The first tape contains all of the core software, documentation and some contributed clients. We call this the "required" X tape since it is necessary for running X or running GNU Emacs under X. The second, "optional" tape contains contributed libraries and other toolkits, the Andrew User Interface System, games, and other programs.
The X11 Required tape also contains all fixes and patches released to date. We update this tape as new fixes and patches are released for programs on both tapes. See section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service.
We will distribute X11R5 on tape until X11R6 is stable, and on the section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, while supplies last.
Berkeley 4.4BSD--Lite Tape
The "4.4BSD--Lite" release is the latest from the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California at Berkeley. It has most of the BSD software system except for a few proprietary files that are in the full 4.4BSD distribution. It is much more complete than the previous "Net2" release.
VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes
We offer two VMS tapes. One has just GNU Emacs 18.59 (none of the other software on the section Lisps and Emacs Tape, is included). The other has GCC 2.3.3, Bison 1.19 (to compile GCC), GAS 1.38 (to assemble GCC's output) and some library and include files (none of the other software on the section Languages Tape, is included). We are not aware of a GDB port for VMS. Both VMS tapes have DEC VAX executables from which you can bootstrap, as the DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC. We are not yet distributing executables for DEC Alpha VMS systems. Please do not ask us to devote effort to VMS support, because it is peripheral to the GNU Project.
We offer these CD-ROMs:
- section MS-DOS CD-ROM, expected in February 1995.
- section Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM, expected in spring 1995.
- section Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.
- section December 1994 Source Code CD-ROM.
- section May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM.
- section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM.
Our CD-ROMs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it you can mount each CD-ROM with "Rock Ridge" extensions (the MS-DOS CD-ROM is only in ISO 9660 format) & it will look just like an ordinary Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.
You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.
Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs
If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the December 1994 Source CD costs $240. It costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The December 1994 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.
What do the individual and company prices mean?
The software on our disk is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.
We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the December 1994 Source CD-ROM, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same disk, we charge just $60.
This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish, and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CD.
You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.
Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 140 Source CDs at that price supports an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year.
Why is there an individual price?
In the past, our distribution tapes have been ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly, and decrease the software development we can do.
However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60.
Is there a maximum price?
Our stated prices are minima. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.
We are releasing our first CD-ROM for MS-DOS in February 1995. Contact either address on the top menu for more information at that time.
The MS-DOS CD will be packaged inside a book describing its contents. It will have all the sources and executables on the MS-DOS Diskettes. For details and version numbers, see section MS-DOS Diskettes.
Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM
Starting this spring, the FSF will be shipping a CD-ROM with Debian GNU/Linux on it. This CD will be packaged inside a book describing its contents.
Debian GNU/Linux is a complete operating system for x86 machines, available in both source code and binary form. It is a GNU/Linux system--that is to say, a variant GNU system which uses Linux as the kernel. (All the systems now available which use the Linux kernel are GNU/Linux systems.)
Debian is being developed by Ian Murdock and the Debian Association in conjunction with the Free Software Foundation. We are distributing it as an interim measure until the GNU kernel (the Hurd) is ready for users.
Debian GNU/Linux is available
on the ftp site
For more information
about the Debian Project and how to get involved, see
`/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/DEBIAN' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software for a list).
Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
We are now offering a CD-ROM that contains executables for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. You can also use the GNU compilation system to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs.
We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu.
* DJGPP 1.12.m2 from GCC 2.6.0 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.6.2 * GNU C Library 1.09 * GDB 4.13 * Binutils 2.5.2 * Bison 1.22 * Emacs 19.26 (MS-DOS only) * Flex 2.4.7 * Make 3.72.1 * libg++ 2.6.1
On these platforms:
Source Code CD-ROMs
We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available:
- section December 1994 Source Code CD-ROM.
- section May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM.
- section November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM.
The older Source Code CDs will be available while supplies last at a reduced price; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
All of the Source Code CDs also contain Texinfo source for the GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual, and other manuals listed in
section GNU Documentation;
as well as a snapshot of the Emacs Lisp Archive at Ohio State University.
(You can get the libraries in this archive by
anonymous FTP from
The VMS tapes' contents are not included. Many programs that are only on MS-DOS diskettes and not on the tapes are also not included. The contents of the MIT Scheme & X11 Optional tapes are not on the November 1993 & May 1994 Source CDs. See section Tapes & section MS-DOS Diskettes.
There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the section Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.
December 1994 Source Code CD-ROM
This is the fifth edition of our Source Code CD-ROM. It has Edition 2.3 for version 19.25 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains the following packages:
* acm 4.6 * Autoconf 1.11 * Autoconf 2.1 * BASH 1.14.2 * bc 1.02 * Binutils 2.5.2 * Bison 1.22 * C Library 1.09 * Calc 2.02c * Chess 4.0.73 * CLISP 1994.10.26 * Common Lisp 1.0 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * dc 0.2 * DejaGnu 1.2 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * ed 0.1 * elib 0.06 * elisp archive * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.28 * es 0.84 * f2c 1994.11.03 * Fileutils 3.12 * findutils 4.1 * finger 1.37 * flex 2.4.7 * Fontutils 0.6 * Gawk 2.15.5 * GCC 2.6.1 * GDB 4.13 * gdbm 1.7.3 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * gmp 1.3.2 * GNATS 3.2 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * gperf 2.1a * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * indent 1.9.1 * ispell 3.1.12 * libg++ 2.6.1 * libobjects 0.1.0 * m4 1.4 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * Make 3.72.1 * MIT Scheme 7.2 (for MS-DOS only) * mkisofs 1.01 * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 2.1 * Nethack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.0 * nvi 1.34 * Octave 1.0 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.000 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 220.127.116.11 * recode 3.4 * regex 0.12 * rx 0.05 * screen 3.5.2 * sed 1.18 * sed 2.05 * sharutils 4.1 * Shellutils 1.12 * Shogi 1.2.02 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.3 * tar 1.11.2 * Termcap 1.2 * TeX 3.1 * Texinfo 3.1 * Textutils 1.11 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.05 * wdiff 0.5 * X11R6 * xboard 3.1.1 * xshogi 1.2.02 * ygl 2.9
May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM
We still have the fourth edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price. This CD has Edition 2.3 for version 19 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains the following packages:
* acm 4.5 * Autoconf 1.10 * BASH 1.13.5 * bc 1.02 * Binutils 2.3 * Bison 1.22 * C Library 1.08 * Calc 2.02c * Chess 4.0.69 * CLISP 1994.01.08 * Common Lisp 1.0 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * dc 0.2 * DejaGnu 1.2 * Diffutils 2.6 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * ed 0.1 * elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.23 * es 0.84 * f2c 1994.04.14 * Fileutils 3.9 * find 3.8 * finger 1.37 * flex 2.4.6 * Fontutils 0.6 * GAS 1.36.utah * GAS 2.2 * Gawk 2.15.4 * GCC 2.5.8 * GDB 4.12 * gdbm 1.7.1 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * gmp 1.3.2 * GNATS 3.2 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * gperf 2.1a * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * indent 1.9.1 * ispell 4.0 * libg++ 2.5.3 * m4 1.1 * Make 3.71 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 1.0 * NetFax 3.2.1 * Nethack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.0 * nvi 1.11 * Octave 1.0 * Oleo 1.5 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * PCL 1993.03.18 * perl 4.036 * ptx 0.3 * rc 1.4 * RCS 18.104.22.168 * recode 3.3 * regex 0.12 * screen 3.5.2 * sed 2.05 * shellutils 1.9.4 * Shogi 1.1.02 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.3 * tar 1.11.2 * Termcap 1.2 * TeX 3.1 * Texinfo 3.1 * Textutils 1.9.1 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.05 * uuencode 1.0 * wdiff 0.04 * X11R6 * xboard 3.0.9 * xshogi 1.2.02
November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM
We still have the third edition of our Source CD, at a reduced price. It contains X11R5, as we feel that people should have a choice between X11R5 and X11R6 until the latter is stable. This CD has Edition 2.2 for version 19 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual & some additional software; not all FSF distributed software is included (see section Source Code CD-ROMs). It contains the following packages:
* acm 3.1 * Autoconf 1.7 * BASH 1.13.4 * bc 1.02 * Binutils 1.9 2.3 * Bison 1.22 * C Library 1.06.7 * Calc 2.02b * Chess 4.0p62 * CLISP 93.11.08 * cpio 2.3 * CVS 1.3 * dc 0.2 * DejaGnu 1.0.1 * Diffutils 2.6 * dld 3.2.3 * doschk 1.1 * ecc 1.2.1 * elib 0.06 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.21 * es 0.84 * f2c 1993.04.28 * Fileutils 3.9 * find 3.8 * finger 1.37 * flex 2.3.8 * Fontutils 0.6 * GAS 1.36.utah * GAS 1.38.1 * GAS 2.2 * Gawk 2.15.3 * GCC 2.5.4 * GDB 4.11 * gdbm 1.7.1 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * gmp 1.3.2 * GNATS 3.01 * GnuGo 1.1 * gnuplot 3.5 * gperf 2.1a * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.08 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.3a * indent 1.8 * Ispell 4.0 * less 177 * libg++ 2.5.1 * m4 1.1 * Make 3.69.1 * MandelSpawn 0.06 * mtools 2.0.7 * MULE 1.0 * NetFax 3.2.1 * Nethack 3.1.3 * NIHCL 3.0 * Oleo 1.5 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * PCL 93.03.18 * perl 4.036 * ptx 0.3 * rc 1.4 * RCS 22.214.171.124 * recode 3.2.4 * regex 0.12 * screen 3.5.2 * sed 1.18 2.03 * Shellutils 1.9.1 * Shogi 1.1p02 * Smalltalk 1.1.1 * Superopt 2.3 * tar 1.11.2 * Termcap 1.2 * TeX 3.1 * Texinfo 3.1 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.6 * time 1.6 * tput 1.0 * UUCP 1.04 * uuencode 1.0 * wdiff 0.04 * X11R5
The FSF distributes some of the GNU software ported to MS-DOS, on 3.5inch 1.44MB diskettes. These disks have both sources and executables.
We offer DJGPP on 30 diskettes. For further details, see section GNU Software. The DJGPP diskettes contain the following:
* bc 1.03 * Binutils 2.4 * Bison 1.22 * cpio 2.3 * Diffutils 2.6 * doschk 1.1 * Fileutils 3.9 * Findutils 3.8 * GAS 2.4 * Gawk 2.15.5 * GCC 2.6.0 * GDB 4.12 * Ghostscript 2.6.1 * Ghostview for Windows 1.0 * Groff 1.09 * gzip 1.24 * hello 1.3 * indent 1.9 * ispell 4.0 * m4 1.2 * Make 3.71 * patch 2.1 * sed 1.18 * shellutils 1.9 * Texinfo 3.1 * texutils 1.9 * wdiff 0.04
Two versions of GNU Emacs are included on the Emacs diskettes we distribute: GNU Emacs version 19.26 handles 8-bit character sets; the other, MULE version 2.1, handles 16-bit character sets including Kanji.
Selected Utilities Diskettes
The GNUish MS-DOS Project ported GNU software to PC compatibles. Though
the GNUish Project is no longer active, users still ask for these ports
that were done several years ago. You can anonymous FTP files
find out how to access these ports over the Internet. We offer these
programs on five diskettes. In general, this software will run on 8086 and
80286--based 16-bit machines; an 80386 is not required. Some of these
utilities are necessarily missing features.
We offer GNU Chess and
gnuplot for Microsoft Windows on a single
Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service
If you do not have net access, our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three tapes or CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the tape of your choice or the Source Code CD-ROM. The tapes are sent each quarter; the CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (which is between two and four times a year.)
Regularly, we will send you a new version of an Lisps/Emacs, Languages, Utilities, or X Window System (X11R6) Required tape or the Source CD-ROM. The MIT Scheme and X Window System Optional tapes are not changed often enough to warrant quarterly updates. We do not yet know if we will be offering subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries or our new CD-ROMs.
Since Emacs 19 is on the Lisps/Emacs Tape and the Source CD-ROM, a subscription to either is an easy way to keep current with Emacs 19 as it evolves.
A subscription is an easy way to keep up with the regular bug fixes to the X Window System. We update the X11R6 Required tape as fixes and patches are issued throughout the year. Each new edition of the section Source Code CD-ROMs, also has updated sources for the X Window System.
Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you have to add $80.00 for each subscription. See "Unix and VMS Software" & "Shipping Instructions" on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
The Deluxe Distribution
The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the Deluxe Distribution includes a complete set of our printed manuals and reference cards.
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.
We will make a Deluxe Distribution for any machine, with any operating system. We will send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine close to us! However, we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen machine and system -- porting is a separate matter (if you wish to commission a port, see the GNU Service Directory, details in section Free Software Support). Compiling all these programs take time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce then one for a common machine. Please contact the FSF office if you have any questions.
We supply the software in one of these tape formats in Unix
1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel,
Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge - QIC24,
Hewlett-Packard 16-track DC600HC 1/4in cartridge,
IBM RS/6000 1/4in cartridge - QIC 150,
Exabyte 8mm cartridge, or
DAT 4mm cartridge.
If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we
can handle your format.
The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C Compiler, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs 19 Lisp Reference, Make, Texinfo, & Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs 19 manual; a packet of ten reference cards each for GNU Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB; and when it is available, a copy of the Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction manual.
Every Deluxe Distribution also includes a copy of the latest editions of our CD-ROMs (including the MS-DOS CD & the Debian GNU/Linux CD when they are available) that contain sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some systems. The MS-DOS CD is in ISO 9660 format. The other CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.
The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form and send it to:
Free Software Foundation, Inc. 675 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139--3309 USA Telephone: +1-617-876-3296 Fax (including Japan): +1-617-492-9057 Free Dial Fax (in Japan): 0031-13-2473 (KDD) 0066-3382-0158 (IDC) Electronic mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online and printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, and give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system, and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals comes with our software, but we publish some of them as printed books as well; see the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. Each book has an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Currently, the GDB, Emacs, Programming in Emacs Lisp, An Introduction, Emacs Lisp Reference, GAWK, Make, Flex, Bison, and Texinfo manuals have this binding. The other GNU manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC or Wire--O binding. All of our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in Calc manual.
The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.
Debugging with GDB (Edition 4.09 for Version 4.9) tells how to use the GNU Debugger, run your program under debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The Emacs Manual (10th Edition for Version 19.26) describes editing with
GNU Emacs. It explains advanced features, including outline mode and
regular expression search; how to use special modes for programming in
languages like C++ and TeX; how to use the
tags utility; how
to compile and correct code; how to make your own keybindings; and other
Programming in Emacs Lisp, An Introduction is an elementary introduction to programming in Emacs Lisp. It is written for people who are not programmers or not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize or extend their computing environment.
It tells how to write programs that find files; shift buffers; use searches, conditionals, loops, and recursion; how to write Emacs initialization files; and how to run the Emacs Lisp debuggers. If you read the text in GNU Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.
The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.3 for Version 19.25) covers this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.
The GAWK Manual (Edition 0.16 for Version 2.16) tells how to use the
GNU implementation of
awk. It is written for those who have never
awk and describes the features of this powerful string and
record manipulation language.
The Make Manual (Edition 0.46 for Version 3.72) describes GNU
make, a program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual
tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be
compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an
introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically
The Flex Manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to
write a lexical scanner definition for the
flex program to create a
C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need
no prior knowledge of scanners.
The Bison Manual (December 1993 Edition for Version 1.23) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.
Using and Porting GNU CC (September 1994 Edition for Version 2.6) tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also covers G++.
The Texinfo Manual (Edition 2.19 for Version 3) explains the markup language used to generate both the online Info documentation and typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references, how to use Texinfo mode in GNU Emacs, and how to catch mistakes. This second edition describes over 50 new commands.
The Termcap Manual (2nd Edition for Version 1.2), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.
The C Library Reference Manual (June 1993 Edition for Version 1.07)
describes most of the facilities of the GNU C library, including both what
Unix calls "library functions" and "system calls." We are doing
limited copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. Please
send corrections and improvements to
The Emacs Calc Manual (Edition 2.02 for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.
How to Get GNU Software
All the software and publications from the Free Software Foundation are distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. The easiest way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can get GNU software direct from the FSF by ordering diskettes, tapes, or CD-ROMs. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering if you can. See the see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. Some are listed in section Free Software for Microcomputers. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.
If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.
Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of FTP logins. Please
use one of these other TCP/IP Internet sites that also provide GNU software
via anonymous FTP (program:
password: your e-mail address, mode:
binary). If you have
FTP access but can't reach one of the hosts listed below, you can get the
software via FTP the same way from GNU's main FTP host,
prep.ai.mit.edu (IP address is
126.96.36.199). For more
details & additional hosts, get the files
`/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' and `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP'.
unix.hensa.ac.uk(get the `README' first),
Those on JANET can look on host
Those who can UUCP can get UUCP instructions via electronic mail from:
For those without Internet access, see section Free Software Support, for
information on getting electronic mail and file transfer via UUCP.
Other GPLed Software
This is a list of copylefted software that is not presently distributed by
us. FTP a more complete list from
`/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host
(see section How to Get GNU Software for a list).
Please let us know of additional programs we should mention.
We don't list GNU Emacs Lisp Libraries.
archive.cis.ohio-state.edu has a list of those you can FTP
in file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.
- GN, a hybrid Gopher and WWW server
GN is a hybrid Internet Gopher/WWW (World Wide Web) server,
done in C, which runs under Unix. GN serves two protocols used by
WWW clients: gopher0 & HTTP/1.0.
For details, see `http://hopf.math.nwu.edu:70/',
`gopher://hopf.math.nwu.edu', contact the author,
email@example.com, John Franks, or FTP it from `ftp.acns.nwu.edu:/pub/gn/gn-2.17.tar.gz'
- GCT, a Test-Coverage Tool based on GCC
GCT 1.4 is a test-coverage tool based on GCC. (Coverage tools measure how
thoroughly a test suite exercises a program.) GPLed ports for Sun-3, Sun-4,
RS/6000, 68k, 88k, HP--PA, IBM 3090, Ultrix, Convex & SCO are available
ftp cs.uiuc.eduin files `/pub/testing/gct.file/ftp.*'. Send discussion list subscriptions to:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Further details from the author Brian Marick,
email@example.com. Telephone: +1--217--351--7228.
Free Software for Microcomputers
We do not provide support for GNU software on most microcomputers because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.
See section MS-DOS Diskettes and section CD-ROMs, for microcomputer software available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other software. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.
- Boston Computer Society
The BCS has numerous free programs for microcomputers, including some GNU
programs. Contact them to see what is available for your machine:
Boston Computer Society 101 First Avenue - Suite 2 Waltham, MA 02154 USA Telephone: +1-617-290-5700 Fax: +1-617-290-5744 Electronic-Mail:
- GNU Software on the Amiga
Get Amiga ports of many GNU programs using anonymous FTP from
ftp.funet.fiin `/pub/amiga/gnu' (Europe). For info on (or offers to help with) the GCC port and related projects, ask Leonard Norrgard,
firstname.lastname@example.org. For info on the GNU Emacs port, ask David Gay,
email@example.com, or Mark D. Henning,
firstname.lastname@example.org. Dave Gilbert,
email@example.com, will be coordinating work on Emacs 19. You can get more info via FTP from
prep.ai.mit.eduin file `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/Amiga'.
- GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix
Get Atari ports by anonymous FTP from
atari.archive.umich.edu, in `/atari/Gnustuff', maintained by Howard Chu,
firstname.lastname@example.org. The GNU software runs on all Atari 68000 and 68030-based systems; a hard drive and 4 MB RAM minimum are recommended for using the compilers. See USENET newsgroups, such as
comp.sys.atari.st.tech, for discussions.
- GNU Software for OS/2
Ports of many GNU programs are on the FTP host
ftp-os2.cdrom.comin `/pub/os2/32bit/unix/'. Two of these are of GNU C/C++/Objective-C Compiler to OS/2 2.x and OS/2 3.x, with the GNU assembler, documentation and both OS/2-specific BSD C libraries. One is Eberhard Mattes' "emx" port, which also features GDB and many Unix-related library functions like
fork. Programs compiled by this port also run on a 80386 under DOS. It is in directory `/pub/os2/32bit/unix/emx09a'. To join the mailing list send email to
email@example.com `sub emx-list firstname lastname'. The other is Michael Johnson's "gcc2" port, now maintained by Colin Jensen. It is in directory `/pub/os2/32bit/unix/gcc2_261'. To join the mailing list, ask
- Linux (Also see section Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM)
Linux (named after its main author, Linus Torvalds) is a free kernel that
implements POSIX.1 functionality with SysV & BSD extensions. Complete
systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel are now
available for 386/486/Pentium machines with ISA/VLB/EISA/PCI-bus. A
m68k port is in testing (it runs on high end Amiga & Atari
computers). AlphaPC & MIPS ports are being worked on.
FTP it from
tsx-11.mit.eduin `/pub/linux' (USA) &
nic.funet.fiin `/pub/OS/Linux' (Europe). Ask
firstname.lastname@example.org mailing lists. See the USENET newsgroups, such as
comp.os.linux.misc, for discussions.
We have a new FSF T-shirt, with a drawing by Berkeley, CA artist Etienne Suvasa. The front has the ever-popular picture of GNArnold from the Flex Manual, while the back has the Preamble to the GNU General Public License.
They are available in two colors, Natural & Black. Natural is an off-white, unbleached, undyed, environment-friendly cotton, printed with black ink, & is great for tye-dyeing or displaying as is. Black is printed with white ink & is perfect for late night hacking. All shirts are thick 100% cotton, & are available in sizes M, L, XL & XXL. This shirt makes a great gift for your favorite hacker!
The previous version of the T-shirt will be available while supplies last, but please contact the FSF to see if we have what you would like before ordering.
Project GNU Wish List
Wishes for this issue are for:
Volunteers to distribute this Bulletin at technical conferences, trade
shows, local and national user group meetings, etc. Volunteers to get GNU
articles into their user group newsletters. Please phone or fax the
the top menu,
email@example.com make arrangements.
- Boston area volunteers for various tasks in the business and programming offices. Please contact us at either address on the top menu.
Volunteers to help write programs and documentation. Send mail to
firstname.lastname@example.org the task list and coding standards.
- Volunteers to build binaries for systems not yet on the section Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM (especially for systems that don't come with a C compiler). Please contact us at either address on the top menu.
- Oleo extensions and other free software for business, such as accounting and project management programs.
- 600+ megabyte SCSI disks to give us more space to develop software.
- Pentium, 486, or 386 PC compatibles with 200+ MB of disk & Ethernet cards.
- Pentium, 486, or 386 PC laptops.
- High end HP-300 workstations. Sixteen or thirty-two 1 Meg SIMMs for a Sun 4/110. A Sun SPARCstation and a Sun-3/60 or 4/110.
- SCSI tape drives for 4mm DAT cartridge tapes, 8mm Exabyte cartridge tapes and 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2inch reel to reel tapes.
- Companies to lend us capable programmers and technical writers for at least six months. True wizards may be welcome for shorter periods, but we have found that six months is the minimum time for a good programmer to finish a worthwhile project.
- Professors who might be interested in sponsoring or hosting research assistants to do GNU development, with FSF support.
- Speech and character recognition software and systems (if the devices aren't too weird), with the device drivers if possible. This would help the productivity of partially disabled people (including a few we know).
- New quotes and ideas for articles in the GNU's Bulletin. We particularly like to highlight organizations involved with free information exchanges, software that uses the GNU General Public License, and companies providing free software support as a primary business.
- Information about free software or developers of free software that we may not know about. Often, we only find out about interesting projects because a user writes and asks us why we have not mentioned those projects!
Copies of newspaper and journal articles mentioning the GNU Project or GNU
software. Send these to the address on
the top menu,
or send a citation
- Money. If you use and appreciate our software, please send a contribution. One way to help us defray our costs is to order a distribution tape, diskette, or CD-ROM. A business can make a larger contribution by ordering a section The Deluxe Distribution. This is especially helpful if you work for a business where the word "donation" is anathema. Because of the value received, the full dollar amounts of such donations are not tax deductible as charitable contributions; however, they may qualify as a business expense.
A special thank gnu to Noah Friedman who was our system ambiguator & release coordinator for many years. We will miss him as he goes back to college.
Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere in this Bulletin!
Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena all at MIT for their invaluable assistance.
Thanks to the many companies and organizations who have bought our Deluxe Distribution package.
Thanks to the Japan Unix Society for their large grant to support Hurd development. For their assistance in Japan, thanks to: Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Prof. Masayuki Ida, and Yukitoshi Fujimura. Thanks to those listed in section Third Annual GNU Seminars in Japan who made the seminars a success. Thanks to Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd., A.I. Soft, Village Center, Inc., ASCII Corporation and many others in Japan, for their donations and support.
For donating booths at their conferences, thanks to: the USENIX Association at LISA VII and Summer USENIX 94; Mark A. Haviland of Bruno Blenheim at Unix Expo 94; Alan Fedder of Open Systems World at FedUnix 94; and Japan Unix Society at Unix Fair 94 in Yokohama, Japan. Thanks to all the volunteers who helped the GNU Project at these and other conferences.
Thanks to Wired Magazine and Barry Meikle of the University of Toronto Bookstore for donating ad space in their separate publications. Thanks to Warren A. Hunt, Jr. and Computational Logic, Inc. for their continued donations and support.
Thanks again to Cygnus Support for assisting the GNU Project in many ways.
Thanks to all those who have lent or donated machines, including: Delta Microsystems for a new Exabyte tape drive; an anonymous donor for a 4mm DAT cartridge drive; ICAD, Inc. for four HP workstations; Network Computing Devices, Inc. for three NCD X-terminals; Russ Button for two SCSI disk drives; Doug Lewan for a Sun-3/60; Computer Publishing Group, publishers of SunExpert & RS/6000, for several Sun workstations; Simson Garfinkel for an NCD X-terminal; Benjamin Cline for a Xylogics SMD controller; IBM Corp. for an Exabyte tape drive & an RS/6000; Hewlett-Packard for a dozen computers; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60; Intel Corp. for their 386 machine; NeXT for their workstation; MIT's Media Laboratory for a HP 68020; SONY Corp. & Software Research Associates, Inc., both of Tokyo, for three SONY News workstations; MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software Foundation for two Compaq 386s; an anonymous donor for a Sun-3/280; Liant Software Corp. for 5 VT100s; Jerry Peek for a 386 machine; Interleaf, Inc., for the loan of a scanner; several anonymous donors for 8 IBM RT/PCs; & Rocky Bernstein for much IBM RT/PC hardware and manuals.
Thanks to all who have contributed ports & extensions, as well as all who have sent in other source code, documentation, & good bug reports.
Thanks to all those who sent money and offered other kinds of help.
Thanks also to all those who support us by ordering t-shirts, manuals, reference cards, distribution tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs.
The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing.
Donations Translate Into Free Software
If you appreciate Emacs, GNU CC, Ghostscript, and other free software, you may wish to help us make sure there is more in the future--remember, donations translate into more free software!
Your donation to us is tax-deductible in the United States. We gladly accept any currency, although the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.
If your employer has a matching gifts program for charitable donations, please arrange to:
- have your donation matched by your employer (in some cases, also see section Cygnus Matches Donations!). If you do not know, please ask your personnel department.
- add the Free Software Foundation to the list of organizations for your employer's matching gifts program.
Circle the amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your donation to:
Free Software Foundation 675 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-3309 USA
$500 $250 $100 $50 other $________ Other currency:________
You can charge a donation to any of Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, JCB, Mastercard, Visa, or American Express. Charges may also be faxed to +1-617-492-9057. Individuals in Japan who are unable to place international calls may use the "free dial" numbers: 0031-13-2473 (KDD) and 0066-3382-0158 (IDC).
Card type: __________________ Expiration Date: _____________ Account Number: _____________________________________________ Cardholder's Signature: _____________________________________ Name: _______________________________________________________ Street Address: _____________________________________________ City/State/Province: ________________________________________ Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: _______________________________
Cygnus Matches Donations!
To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support will continue to contribute corporate funds to FSF to accompany gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.
Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent by eligible persons to Cygnus Support, which will add its gifts and forward the total to the FSF each quarter. The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). For more information, please contact Cygnus:
Cygnus Support 1937 Landings Drive Mountain View, CA 94043 USA Telephone: 415-903-1400 +1-800-Cygnus1 (-294-6871) Fax: 415-903-0122 Electronic-Mail:
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(c.t. = cartridge tape) Lisps/Emacs $200 $210 $230 $215 (3) $205 $225 Languages $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 Utilities $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 4.4BSD-Lite $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 Scheme $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 X11R5-Required $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 X11R5-Optional $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 X11R6-Required $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 X11R6-Optional $200 $210 $230 $215 $205 $225 (1) Sun tapes can be read on some other Unix systems. (2) IBM RS/6000 tapes can be read on some other Unix systems. (3) The IBM Emacs tape also has binaries for GNU Emacs. Subscriptions, 4 updates for one year (see section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service): Emacs $600 $630 $690 $645 $615 $675 Languages $600 $630 $690 $645 $615 $675 Utilities $600 $630 $690 $645 $615 $675 X11R6-Required $600 $630 $690 $645 $615 $675 Subtotal $ ______ Please put total of the above circled amounts here. These 1600 bpi reel-to-reel 9 track 1/2" tapes, in VMS BACKUP format (aka interchange format) (see section VMS Emacs and VMS Compiler Tapes): ____ @ $195 = $ ______ VMS Emacs, GNU Emacs source & executables only. ____ @ $195 = $ ______ VMS Compiler, GCC, GAS, and Bison source and executables only. FSF Deluxe Distribution (see section The Deluxe Distribution): ...................................................... ____ @ $5000 = $ ______ The Deluxe Distribution, with manuals, etc. Machine: _____________________________________________________________________ Operating system: ____________________________________________________________ Media type: __________________________________________________________________ CD-ROMs, in ISO 9660 format (see section CD-ROMs): .............................................. GNU Source Code CD-ROM, Version 5 with X11R6 (see section December 1994 Source Code CD-ROM): ____ @ $240 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $ 60 = $ ______ for individuals. GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, Version 2, December 1994 Edition (see section Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM): ____ @ $220 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $55 = $ ______ for individuals. Debian GNU/Linux Book and CD-ROM - expected Spring 1995 (see section Debian GNU/Linux CD-ROM): ____ @ $200 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $50 = $ ______ for individuals. Subscriptions, next 4 updates, of the Source Code CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format (see section Tape & CD-ROM Subscription Service): ____ @ $720 = $ ______ for corporations and other organizations. ____ @ $180 = $ ______ for individuals. 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Please call for bulk purchase discounts. ____ @ $ 25 = $ ______ GNU Emacs version 19.26 manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Lisp Reference version 19.25 manual, in two volumes. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ Using and Porting GNU CC. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU C Library Reference Manual. ____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Calc manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Programming in Emacs Lisp, An Introduction (available February 1995). ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Debugging with GDB, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Gawk manual. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Make manual. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Bison manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Flex manual, with a reference card. ____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Texinfo manual. ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Termcap manual. Reference Cards --------------- The following reference cards, in packets of ten. For single copies please call. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GNU Emacs version 19 reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Calc reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GDB reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ Bison reference cards. ____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ Flex reference cards. T-shirts -------- GNU/FSF T-shirts, thick 100% cotton (see section FSF T-shirt): ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size M ____ natural ____ black. ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size L ____ natural ____ black. ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size XL ____ natural ____ black. ____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Size XXL ____ natural ____ black. 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