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Index Entry  Section

!
! (exclamation point), ! operator: Boolean Ops
! (exclamation point), ! operator: Precedence
! (exclamation point), ! operator: Ranges
! (exclamation point), ! operator: Egrep Program
! (exclamation point), != operator: Comparison Operators
! (exclamation point), != operator: Precedence
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Regexp Usage
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Case-sensitivity
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Computed Regexps
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Regexp Constants
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Comparison Operators
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Comparison Operators
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Precedence
! (exclamation point), !~ operator: Expression Patterns

"
" (double quote) in shell commands: Read Terminal
" (double quote), in regexp constants: Computed Regexps
" (double quote), in shell commands: Quoting

#
# (number sign), #! (executable scripts): Executable Scripts
# (number sign), commenting: Comments

$
$ (dollar sign), $ field operator: Fields
$ (dollar sign), $ field operator: Precedence
$ (dollar sign), incrementing fields and arrays: Increment Ops
$ (dollar sign), regexp operator: Regexp Operators

%
% (percent sign), % operator: Precedence
% (percent sign), %= operator: Assignment Ops
% (percent sign), %= operator: Precedence

&
& (ampersand), && operator: Boolean Ops
& (ampersand), && operator: Precedence
& (ampersand), gsub()/gensub()/sub() functions and: Gory Details

'
' (single quote): One-shot
' (single quote) in gawk command lines: Long
' (single quote), in shell commands: Quoting
' (single quote), vs. apostrophe: Comments
' (single quote), with double quotes: Quoting

(
() (parentheses), in a profile: Profiling
() (parentheses), regexp operator: Regexp Operators

*
* (asterisk), * operator, as multiplication operator: Precedence
* (asterisk), * operator, as regexp operator: Regexp Operators
* (asterisk), * operator, null strings, matching: Gory Details
* (asterisk), ** operator: Arithmetic Ops
* (asterisk), ** operator: Precedence
* (asterisk), **= operator: Assignment Ops
* (asterisk), **= operator: Precedence
* (asterisk), *= operator: Assignment Ops
* (asterisk), *= operator: Precedence

+
+ (plus sign), + operator: Precedence
+ (plus sign), + operator: Precedence
+ (plus sign), ++ operator: Increment Ops
+ (plus sign), ++ operator: Increment Ops
+ (plus sign), ++ operator: Precedence
+ (plus sign), += operator: Assignment Ops
+ (plus sign), += operator: Precedence
+ (plus sign), regexp operator: Regexp Operators

,
, (comma), in range patterns: Ranges

-
- (hyphen), - operator: Precedence
- (hyphen), - operator: Precedence
- (hyphen), -- operator: Increment Ops
- (hyphen), -- operator: Precedence
- (hyphen), -= operator: Assignment Ops
- (hyphen), -= operator: Precedence
- (hyphen), filenames beginning with: Options
- (hyphen), in bracket expressions: Bracket Expressions
--assign option: Options
--bignum option: Options
--characters-as-bytes option: Options
--copyright option: Options
--debug option: Options
--disable-extensions configuration option: Additional Configuration Options
--disable-lint configuration option: Additional Configuration Options
--disable-nls configuration option: Additional Configuration Options
--dump-variables option: Options
--dump-variables option, using for library functions: Library Names
--exec option: Options
--field-separator option: Options
--file option: Options
--gen-pot option: Options
--gen-pot option: String Extraction
--gen-pot option: String Extraction
--help option: Options
--include option: Options
--lint option: Command Line
--lint option: Options
--lint-old option: Options
--load option: Options
--non-decimal-data option: Options
--non-decimal-data option: Nondecimal Data
--non-decimal-data option, strtonum() function and: Nondecimal Data
--optimize option: Options
--posix option: Options
--posix option, --traditional option and: Options
--pretty-print option: Options
--profile option: Options
--profile option: Profiling
--re-interval option: Options
--sandbox option: Options
--sandbox option, disabling system() function: I/O Functions
--sandbox option, input redirection with getline: Getline
--sandbox option, output redirection with print, printf: Redirection
--source option: Options
--source option: Options
--traditional option: Options
--traditional option, --posix option and: Options
--use-lc-numeric option: Options
--version option: Options
--with-whiny-user-strftime configuration option: Additional Configuration Options
-b option: Options
-c option: Options
-C option: Options
-d option: Options
-D option: Options
-e option: Options
-E option: Options
-f option: Long
-F option: Options
-f option: Options
-F option, -Ft sets FS to TAB: Options
-F option, command line: Command Line Field Separator
-f option, multiple uses: Options
-g option: Options
-h option: Options
-i option: Options
-l option: Options
-l option: Options
-L option: Options
-M option: Options
-n option: Options
-N option: Options
-o option: Options
-O option: Options
-p option: Options
-P option: Options
-r option: Options
-S option: Options
-v option: Options
-V option: Options
-v option: Assignment Options
-W option: Options

.
. (period), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
.gmo files: Explaining gettext
.gmo files, converting from .po: I18N Example
.gmo files, specifying directory of: Explaining gettext
.gmo files, specifying directory of: Programmer i18n
.po files: Explaining gettext
.po files: Translator i18n
.po files, converting to .gmo: I18N Example
.pot files: Explaining gettext

/
/ (forward slash) to enclose regular expressions: Regexp
/ (forward slash), / operator: Precedence
/ (forward slash), /= operator: Assignment Ops
/ (forward slash), /= operator: Precedence
/ (forward slash), /= operator, vs. /=…/ regexp constant: Assignment Ops
/ (forward slash), patterns and: Expression Patterns
/= operator vs. /=…/ regexp constant: Assignment Ops
/dev/… special files: Special FD
/dev/fd/N special files (gawk): Special FD
/inet/… special files (gawk): TCP/IP Networking
/inet4/… special files (gawk): TCP/IP Networking
/inet6/… special files (gawk): TCP/IP Networking

;
; (semicolon), AWKPATH variable and: PC Using
; (semicolon), separating statements in actions: Statements/Lines
; (semicolon), separating statements in actions: Action Overview
; (semicolon), separating statements in actions: Statements

<
< (left angle bracket), < operator: Comparison Operators
< (left angle bracket), < operator: Precedence
< (left angle bracket), < operator (I/O): Getline/File
< (left angle bracket), <= operator: Comparison Operators
< (left angle bracket), <= operator: Precedence

=
= (equals sign), = operator: Assignment Ops
= (equals sign), == operator: Comparison Operators
= (equals sign), == operator: Precedence

>
> (right angle bracket), > operator: Comparison Operators
> (right angle bracket), > operator: Precedence
> (right angle bracket), > operator (I/O): Redirection
> (right angle bracket), >= operator: Comparison Operators
> (right angle bracket), >= operator: Precedence
> (right angle bracket), >> operator (I/O): Redirection
> (right angle bracket), >> operator (I/O): Precedence

?
? (question mark), ?: operator: Precedence
? (question mark), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
? (question mark), regexp operator: GNU Regexp Operators

[
[] (square brackets), regexp operator: Regexp Operators

\
\ (backslash): Comments
\ (backslash) in shell commands: Read Terminal
\ (backslash), as field separator: Command Line Field Separator
\ (backslash), continuing lines and: Statements/Lines
\ (backslash), continuing lines and: Egrep Program
\ (backslash), continuing lines and, comments and: Statements/Lines
\ (backslash), continuing lines and, in csh: Statements/Lines
\ (backslash), gsub()/gensub()/sub() functions and: Gory Details
\ (backslash), in bracket expressions: Bracket Expressions
\ (backslash), in escape sequences: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), in escape sequences: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), in escape sequences, POSIX and: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), in regexp constants: Computed Regexps
\ (backslash), in shell commands: Quoting
\ (backslash), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \" escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \' operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \/ escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \< operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \> operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \a escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \b escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \B operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \f escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \n escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \nnn escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \r escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \s operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \S operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \t escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \v escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \w operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \W operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \x escape sequence: Escape Sequences
\ (backslash), \y operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
\ (backslash), \` operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators

^
^ (caret), in bracket expressions: Bracket Expressions
^ (caret), in FS: Regexp Field Splitting
^ (caret), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
^ (caret), regexp operator: GNU Regexp Operators
^ (caret), ^ operator: Precedence
^ (caret), ^= operator: Assignment Ops
^ (caret), ^= operator: Precedence

_
_ (underscore), C macro: Explaining gettext
_ (underscore), in names of private variables: Library Names
_ (underscore), translatable string: Programmer i18n
_gr_init() user-defined function: Group Functions
_ord_init() user-defined function: Ordinal Functions
_pw_init() user-defined function: Passwd Functions

{
{} (braces): Profiling
{} (braces), actions and: Action Overview
{} (braces), statements, grouping: Statements

|
| (vertical bar): Regexp Operators
| (vertical bar), | operator (I/O): Getline/Pipe
| (vertical bar), | operator (I/O): Redirection
| (vertical bar), | operator (I/O): Precedence
| (vertical bar), |& operator (I/O): Getline/Coprocess
| (vertical bar), |& operator (I/O): Redirection
| (vertical bar), |& operator (I/O): Precedence
| (vertical bar), |& operator (I/O): Two-way I/O
| (vertical bar), |& operator (I/O), pipes, closing: Close Files And Pipes
| (vertical bar), || operator: Boolean Ops
| (vertical bar), || operator: Precedence

~
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Regexp Usage
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Case-sensitivity
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Computed Regexps
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Regexp Constants
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Comparison Operators
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Comparison Operators
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Precedence
~ (tilde), ~ operator: Expression Patterns

A
accessing fields: Fields
accessing global variables from extensions: Symbol Table Access
account information: Passwd Functions
account information: Group Functions
actions: Action Overview
actions, control statements in: Statements
actions, default: Very Simple
actions, empty: Very Simple
Ada programming language: Glossary
adding, features to gawk: Adding Code
adding, fields: Changing Fields
advanced features, fixed-width data: Constant Size
advanced features, gawk: Advanced Features
advanced features, network programming: TCP/IP Networking
advanced features, nondecimal input data: Nondecimal Data
advanced features, processes, communicating with: Two-way I/O
advanced features, specifying field content: Splitting By Content
Aho, Alfred: History
Aho, Alfred: Contributors
alarm clock example program: Alarm Program
alarm.awk program: Alarm Program
algorithms: Basic High Level
allocating memory for extensions: Memory Allocation Functions
Alpha (DEC): Manual History
amazing awk assembler (aaa): Glossary
amazingly workable formatter (awf): Glossary
ambiguity, syntactic: /= operator vs. /=…/ regexp constant: Assignment Ops
ampersand (&), && operator: Boolean Ops
ampersand (&), && operator: Precedence
ampersand (&), gsub()/gensub()/sub() functions and: Gory Details
anagram.awk program: Anagram Program
anagrams, finding: Anagram Program
AND bitwise operation: Bitwise Functions
and Boolean-logic operator: Boolean Ops
and() function (gawk): Bitwise Functions
ANSI: Glossary
API informational variables: Extension API Informational Variables
API version: Extension Versioning
arbitrary precision: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
arbitrary precision integers: Arbitrary Precision Integers
archeologists: Bugs
arctangent: Numeric Functions
ARGC/ARGV variables: Auto-set
ARGC/ARGV variables, command-line arguments: Other Arguments
ARGC/ARGV variables, how to use: ARGC and ARGV
ARGC/ARGV variables, portability and: Executable Scripts
ARGIND variable: Auto-set
ARGIND variable, command-line arguments: Other Arguments
arguments, command-line: Other Arguments
arguments, command-line: Auto-set
arguments, command-line: ARGC and ARGV
arguments, command-line, invoking awk: Command Line
arguments, in function calls: Function Calls
arguments, processing: Getopt Function
ARGV array, indexing into: Other Arguments
arithmetic operators: Arithmetic Ops
array manipulation in extensions: Array Manipulation
array members: Reference to Elements
array scanning order, controlling: Controlling Scanning
array, number of elements: String Functions
arrays: Arrays
arrays of arrays: Arrays of Arrays
arrays, an example of using: Array Example
arrays, and IGNORECASE variable: Array Intro
arrays, as parameters to functions: Pass By Value/Reference
arrays, associative: Array Intro
arrays, associative, library functions and: Library Names
arrays, deleting entire contents: Delete
arrays, elements that don’t exist: Reference to Elements
arrays, elements, assigning values: Assigning Elements
arrays, elements, deleting: Delete
arrays, elements, order of access by in operator: Scanning an Array
arrays, elements, retrieving number of: String Functions
arrays, for statement and: Scanning an Array
arrays, indexing: Array Intro
arrays, merging into strings: Join Function
arrays, multidimensional: Multidimensional
arrays, multidimensional, scanning: Multiscanning
arrays, names of, and names of functions/variables: Arrays
arrays, numeric subscripts: Numeric Array Subscripts
arrays, referencing elements: Reference to Elements
arrays, scanning: Scanning an Array
arrays, sorting: Array Sorting Functions
arrays, sorting, and IGNORECASE variable: Array Sorting Functions
arrays, sparse: Array Intro
arrays, subscripts, uninitialized variables as: Uninitialized Subscripts
arrays, unassigned elements: Reference to Elements
artificial intelligence, gawk and: Distribution contents
ASCII: Ordinal Functions
ASCII: Glossary
asort() function (gawk): String Functions
asort() function (gawk): Array Sorting Functions
asort() function (gawk), arrays, sorting: Array Sorting Functions
asorti() function (gawk): String Functions
asorti() function (gawk): Array Sorting Functions
asorti() function (gawk), arrays, sorting: Array Sorting Functions
assert() function (C library): Assert Function
assert() user-defined function: Assert Function
assertions: Assert Function
assign values to variables, in debugger: Viewing And Changing Data
assignment operators: Assignment Ops
assignment operators, evaluation order: Assignment Ops
assignment operators, lvalues/rvalues: Assignment Ops
assignments as filenames: Ignoring Assigns
associative arrays: Array Intro
asterisk (*), * operator, as multiplication operator: Precedence
asterisk (*), * operator, as regexp operator: Regexp Operators
asterisk (*), * operator, null strings, matching: Gory Details
asterisk (*), ** operator: Arithmetic Ops
asterisk (*), ** operator: Precedence
asterisk (*), **= operator: Assignment Ops
asterisk (*), **= operator: Precedence
asterisk (*), *= operator: Assignment Ops
asterisk (*), *= operator: Precedence
atan2() function: Numeric Functions
automatic displays, in debugger: Debugger Info
awf (amazingly workable formatter) program: Glossary
awk debugging, enabling: Options
awk language, POSIX version: Assignment Ops
awk profiling, enabling: Options
awk programs: Getting Started
awk programs: Executable Scripts
awk programs: Two Rules
awk programs, complex: When
awk programs, documenting: Comments
awk programs, documenting: Library Names
awk programs, examples of: Sample Programs
awk programs, execution of: Next Statement
awk programs, internationalizing: I18N Functions
awk programs, internationalizing: Programmer i18n
awk programs, lengthy: Long
awk programs, lengthy, assertions: Assert Function
awk programs, location of: Options
awk programs, location of: Options
awk programs, location of: Options
awk programs, one-line examples: Very Simple
awk programs, profiling: Profiling
awk programs, running: Running gawk
awk programs, running: Long
awk programs, running, from shell scripts: One-shot
awk programs, running, without input files: Read Terminal
awk programs, shell variables in: Using Shell Variables
awk, function of: Getting Started
awk, gawk and: Preface
awk, gawk and: This Manual
awk, history of: History
awk, implementation issues, pipes: Redirection
awk, implementations: Other Versions
awk, implementations, limits: Getline Notes
awk, invoking: Command Line
awk, new vs. old: Names
awk, new vs. old, OFMT variable: Conversion
awk, POSIX and: Preface
awk, POSIX and, See Also POSIX awk: Preface
awk, regexp constants and: Comparison Operators
awk, See Also gawk: Preface
awk, terms describing: This Manual
awk, uses for: Preface
awk, uses for: Getting Started
awk, uses for: When
awk, versions of: Names
awk, versions of: V7/SVR3.1
awk, versions of, changes between SVR3.1 and SVR4: SVR4
awk, versions of, changes between SVR4 and POSIX awk: POSIX
awk, versions of, changes between V7 and SVR3.1: V7/SVR3.1
awk, versions of, See Also Brian Kernighan’s awk: BTL
awk, versions of, See Also Brian Kernighan’s awk: Other Versions
awka compiler for awk: Other Versions
AWKLIBPATH environment variable: AWKLIBPATH Variable
AWKPATH environment variable: AWKPATH Variable
AWKPATH environment variable: PC Using
awkprof.out file: Profiling
awksed.awk program: Simple Sed
awkvars.out file: Options

B
b debugger command (alias for break): Breakpoint Control
backslash (\): Comments
backslash (\) in shell commands: Read Terminal
backslash (\), as field separator: Command Line Field Separator
backslash (\), continuing lines and: Statements/Lines
backslash (\), continuing lines and: Egrep Program
backslash (\), continuing lines and, comments and: Statements/Lines
backslash (\), continuing lines and, in csh: Statements/Lines
backslash (\), gsub()/gensub()/sub() functions and: Gory Details
backslash (\), in bracket expressions: Bracket Expressions
backslash (\), in escape sequences: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), in escape sequences: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), in escape sequences, POSIX and: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), in regexp constants: Computed Regexps
backslash (\), in shell commands: Quoting
backslash (\), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \" escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \' operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \/ escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \< operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \> operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \a escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \b escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \B operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \f escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \n escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \nnn escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \r escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \s operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \S operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \t escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \v escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \w operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \W operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \x escape sequence: Escape Sequences
backslash (\), \y operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backslash (\), \` operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
backtrace debugger command: Execution Stack
Beebe, Nelson H.F.: Acknowledgments
Beebe, Nelson H.F.: Other Versions
BEGIN pattern: Field Separators
BEGIN pattern: BEGIN/END
BEGIN pattern: Using BEGIN/END
BEGIN pattern, and profiling: Profiling
BEGIN pattern, assert() user-defined function and: Assert Function
BEGIN pattern, Boolean patterns and: Expression Patterns
BEGIN pattern, exit statement and: Exit Statement
BEGIN pattern, getline and: Getline Notes
BEGIN pattern, headings, adding: Print Examples
BEGIN pattern, next/nextfile statements and: I/O And BEGIN/END
BEGIN pattern, next/nextfile statements and: Next Statement
BEGIN pattern, OFS/ORS variables, assigning values to: Output Separators
BEGIN pattern, operators and: Using BEGIN/END
BEGIN pattern, print statement and: I/O And BEGIN/END
BEGIN pattern, pwcat program: Passwd Functions
BEGIN pattern, running awk programs and: Cut Program
BEGIN pattern, TEXTDOMAIN variable and: Programmer i18n
BEGINFILE pattern: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
BEGINFILE pattern, Boolean patterns and: Expression Patterns
beginfile() user-defined function: Filetrans Function
Bentley, Jon: Glossary
Benzinger, Michael: Contributors
Berry, Karl: Acknowledgments
Berry, Karl: Ranges and Locales
binary input/output: User-modified
bindtextdomain() function (C library): Explaining gettext
bindtextdomain() function (gawk): I18N Functions
bindtextdomain() function (gawk): Programmer i18n
bindtextdomain() function (gawk), portability and: I18N Portability
BINMODE variable: User-modified
BINMODE variable: PC Using
bit-manipulation functions: Bitwise Functions
bits2str() user-defined function: Bitwise Functions
bitwise AND: Bitwise Functions
bitwise complement: Bitwise Functions
bitwise OR: Bitwise Functions
bitwise XOR: Bitwise Functions
bitwise, complement: Bitwise Functions
bitwise, operations: Bitwise Functions
bitwise, shift: Bitwise Functions
body, in actions: Statements
body, in loops: While Statement
Boolean expressions: Boolean Ops
Boolean expressions, as patterns: Expression Patterns
Boolean operators, See Boolean expressions: Boolean Ops
Bourne shell, quoting rules for: Quoting
braces ({}): Profiling
braces ({}), actions and: Action Overview
braces ({}), statements, grouping: Statements
bracket expressions: Regexp Operators
bracket expressions: Bracket Expressions
bracket expressions, character classes: Bracket Expressions
bracket expressions, collating elements: Bracket Expressions
bracket expressions, collating symbols: Bracket Expressions
bracket expressions, complemented: Regexp Operators
bracket expressions, equivalence classes: Bracket Expressions
bracket expressions, non-ASCII: Bracket Expressions
bracket expressions, range expressions: Bracket Expressions
break debugger command: Breakpoint Control
break statement: Break Statement
breakpoint: Debugging Terms
breakpoint at location, how to delete: Breakpoint Control
breakpoint commands: Debugger Execution Control
breakpoint condition: Breakpoint Control
breakpoint, delete by number: Breakpoint Control
breakpoint, how to disable or enable: Breakpoint Control
breakpoint, setting: Breakpoint Control
Brennan, Michael: Foreword
Brennan, Michael: Delete
Brennan, Michael: Simple Sed
Brennan, Michael: Two-way I/O
Brennan, Michael: Other Versions
Brennan, Michael: Other Versions
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Preface
Brian Kernighan’s awk: When
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Escape Sequences
Brian Kernighan’s awk: GNU Regexp Operators
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Regexp Field Splitting
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Getline/Pipe
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Concatenation
Brian Kernighan’s awk: I/O And BEGIN/END
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Break Statement
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Continue Statement
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Nextfile Statement
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Delete
Brian Kernighan’s awk: String Functions
Brian Kernighan’s awk: Gory Details
Brian Kernighan’s awk: I/O Functions
Brian Kernighan’s awk, extensions: BTL
Brian Kernighan’s awk, source code: Other Versions
Brini, Davide: Signature Program
Broder, Alan J.: Contributors
Brown, Martin: Contributors
BSD-based operating systems: Glossary
bt debugger command (alias for backtrace): Execution Stack
Buening, Andreas: Acknowledgments
Buening, Andreas: Contributors
Buening, Andreas: Bugs
buffering, input/output: I/O Functions
buffering, input/output: Two-way I/O
buffering, interactive vs. noninteractive: I/O Functions
buffers, flushing: I/O Functions
buffers, flushing: I/O Functions
buffers, operators for: GNU Regexp Operators
bug reports, email address, bug-gawk@gnu.org: Bugs
bug-gawk@gnu.org bug reporting address: Bugs
built-in functions: Functions
built-in functions, evaluation order: Calling Built-in
built-in variables: Built-in Variables
built-in variables, -v option, setting with: Options
built-in variables, conveying information: Auto-set
built-in variables, user-modifiable: User-modified
Busybox Awk: Other Versions

C
call by reference: Pass By Value/Reference
call by value: Pass By Value/Reference
call stack, display in debugger: Execution Stack
caret (^), in bracket expressions: Bracket Expressions
caret (^), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
caret (^), regexp operator: GNU Regexp Operators
caret (^), ^ operator: Precedence
caret (^), ^= operator: Assignment Ops
caret (^), ^= operator: Precedence
case keyword: Switch Statement
case sensitivity, and regexps: User-modified
case sensitivity, and string comparisons: User-modified
case sensitivity, array indices and: Array Intro
case sensitivity, converting case: String Functions
case sensitivity, example programs: Library Functions
case sensitivity, gawk: Case-sensitivity
case sensitivity, regexps and: Case-sensitivity
CGI, awk scripts for: Options
changing precision of a number: Changing Precision
character classes, See bracket expressions: Regexp Operators
character lists in regular expression: Bracket Expressions
character lists, See bracket expressions: Regexp Operators
character sets (machine character encodings): Ordinal Functions
character sets (machine character encodings): Glossary
character sets, See Also bracket expressions: Regexp Operators
characters, counting: Wc Program
characters, transliterating: Translate Program
characters, values of as numbers: Ordinal Functions
Chassell, Robert J.: Acknowledgments
chdir() extension function: Extension Sample File Functions
chem utility: Glossary
chr() extension function: Extension Sample Ord
chr() user-defined function: Ordinal Functions
clear debugger command: Breakpoint Control
Cliff random numbers: Cliff Random Function
cliff_rand() user-defined function: Cliff Random Function
close file or coprocess: I/O Functions
close() function: Close Files And Pipes
close() function: I/O Functions
close() function, portability: Close Files And Pipes
close() function, return value: Close Files And Pipes
close() function, two-way pipes and: Two-way I/O
Close, Diane: Manual History
Close, Diane: Contributors
Collado, Manuel: Acknowledgments
collating elements: Bracket Expressions
collating symbols: Bracket Expressions
Colombo, Antonio: Acknowledgments
Colombo, Antonio: Contributors
columns, aligning: Print Examples
columns, cutting: Cut Program
comma (,), in range patterns: Ranges
command completion, in debugger: Readline Support
command line, arguments: Other Arguments
command line, arguments: Auto-set
command line, arguments: ARGC and ARGV
command line, directories on: Command line directories
command line, formats: Running gawk
command line, FS on, setting: Command Line Field Separator
command line, invoking awk from: Command Line
command line, option -f: Long
command line, options: Options
command line, options, end of: Options
command line, variables, assigning on: Assignment Options
command-line options, processing: Getopt Function
command-line options, string extraction: String Extraction
commands debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
commands to execute at breakpoint: Debugger Execution Control
commenting: Comments
commenting, backslash continuation and: Statements/Lines
common extensions, ** operator: Arithmetic Ops
common extensions, **= operator: Assignment Ops
common extensions, /dev/stderr special file: Special FD
common extensions, /dev/stdin special file: Special FD
common extensions, /dev/stdout special file: Special FD
common extensions, BINMODE variable: PC Using
common extensions, delete to delete entire arrays: Delete
common extensions, func keyword: Definition Syntax
common extensions, length() applied to an array: String Functions
common extensions, RS as a regexp: Records
common extensions, single character fields: Single Character Fields
common extensions, \x escape sequence: Escape Sequences
comp.lang.awk newsgroup: Bugs
comparison expressions: Typing and Comparison
comparison expressions, as patterns: Expression Patterns
comparison expressions, string vs. regexp: Comparison Operators
compatibility mode (gawk), extensions: POSIX/GNU
compatibility mode (gawk), file names: Special Caveats
compatibility mode (gawk), hexadecimal numbers: Nondecimal-numbers
compatibility mode (gawk), octal numbers: Nondecimal-numbers
compatibility mode (gawk), specifying: Options
compiled programs: Basic High Level
compiled programs: Glossary
compiling gawk for Cygwin: Cygwin
compiling gawk for MS-DOS and MS-Windows: PC Compiling
compiling gawk for VMS: VMS Compilation
compiling gawk with EMX for OS/2: PC Compiling
compl() function (gawk): Bitwise Functions
complement, bitwise: Bitwise Functions
compound statements, control statements and: Statements
concatenating: Concatenation
condition debugger command: Breakpoint Control
conditional expressions: Conditional Exp
configuration option, --disable-extensions: Additional Configuration Options
configuration option, --disable-lint: Additional Configuration Options
configuration option, --disable-nls: Additional Configuration Options
configuration option, --with-whiny-user-strftime: Additional Configuration Options
configuration options, gawk: Additional Configuration Options
constant regexps: Regexp Usage
constants, floating-point: Floating-point Constants
constants, nondecimal: Nondecimal Data
constants, numeric: Scalar Constants
constants, types of: Constants
context, floating-point: Floating-point Context
continue program, in debugger: Debugger Execution Control
continue statement: Continue Statement
control statements: Statements
controlling array scanning order: Controlling Scanning
convert string to lower case: String Functions
convert string to number: String Functions
convert string to upper case: String Functions
converting integer array subscripts: Numeric Array Subscripts
converting, dates to timestamps: Time Functions
converting, numbers to strings: Conversion
converting, numbers to strings: Bitwise Functions
converting, strings to numbers: Conversion
converting, strings to numbers: Bitwise Functions
CONVFMT variable: Conversion
CONVFMT variable: User-modified
CONVFMT variable, and array subscripts: Numeric Array Subscripts
cookie: Glossary
coprocesses: Redirection
coprocesses: Two-way I/O
coprocesses, closing: Close Files And Pipes
coprocesses, getline from: Getline/Coprocess
cos() function: Numeric Functions
cosine: Numeric Functions
counting: Wc Program
csh utility: Statements/Lines
csh utility, POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options
csh utility, |& operator, comparison with: Two-way I/O
ctime() user-defined function: Function Example
currency symbols, localization: Explaining gettext
current system time: Time Functions
custom.h file: Configuration Philosophy
customized input parser: Input Parsers
customized output wrapper: Output Wrappers
customized two-way processor: Two-way processors
cut utility: Cut Program
cut utility: Cut Program
cut.awk program: Cut Program

D
d debugger command (alias for delete): Breakpoint Control
d.c., See dark corner: Conventions
dark corner: Conventions
dark corner: Glossary
dark corner, "0" is actually true: Truth Values
dark corner, /= operator vs. /=…/ regexp constant: Assignment Ops
dark corner, array subscripts: Uninitialized Subscripts
dark corner, break statement: Break Statement
dark corner, close() function: Close Files And Pipes
dark corner, command-line arguments: Assignment Options
dark corner, continue statement: Continue Statement
dark corner, CONVFMT variable: Conversion
dark corner, escape sequences: Other Arguments
dark corner, escape sequences, for metacharacters: Escape Sequences
dark corner, exit statement: Exit Statement
dark corner, field separators: Field Splitting Summary
dark corner, FILENAME variable: Getline Notes
dark corner, FILENAME variable: Auto-set
dark corner, FNR/NR variables: Auto-set
dark corner, format-control characters: Control Letters
dark corner, format-control characters: Control Letters
dark corner, FS as null string: Single Character Fields
dark corner, input files: Records
dark corner, invoking awk: Command Line
dark corner, length() function: String Functions
dark corner, locale’s decimal point character: Conversion
dark corner, multiline records: Multiple Line
dark corner, NF variable, decrementing: Changing Fields
dark corner, OFMT variable: OFMT
dark corner, regexp constants: Using Constant Regexps
dark corner, regexp constants, /= operator and: Assignment Ops
dark corner, regexp constants, as arguments to user-defined functions: Using Constant Regexps
dark corner, split() function: String Functions
dark corner, strings, storing: Records
dark corner, value of ARGV[0]: Auto-set
dark corner, ^, in FS: Regexp Field Splitting
data, fixed-width: Constant Size
data-driven languages: Basic High Level
database, group, reading: Group Functions
database, users, reading: Passwd Functions
date utility, GNU: Time Functions
date utility, POSIX: Time Functions
dates, converting to timestamps: Time Functions
dates, information related to, localization: Explaining gettext
Davies, Stephen: Acknowledgments
Davies, Stephen: Contributors
dcgettext() function (gawk): I18N Functions
dcgettext() function (gawk): Programmer i18n
dcgettext() function (gawk), portability and: I18N Portability
dcngettext() function (gawk): I18N Functions
dcngettext() function (gawk): Programmer i18n
dcngettext() function (gawk), portability and: I18N Portability
deadlocks: Two-way I/O
debugger commands, b (break): Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, backtrace: Execution Stack
debugger commands, break: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, bt (backtrace): Execution Stack
debugger commands, c (continue): Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, clear: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, commands: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, condition: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, continue: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, d (delete): Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, delete: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, disable: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, display: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, down: Execution Stack
debugger commands, dump: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, e (enable): Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, enable: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, end: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, eval: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, f (frame): Execution Stack
debugger commands, finish: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, frame: Execution Stack
debugger commands, h (help): Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, help: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, i (info): Debugger Info
debugger commands, ignore: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, info: Debugger Info
debugger commands, l (list): Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, list: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, n (next): Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, next: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, nexti: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, ni (nexti): Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, o (option): Debugger Info
debugger commands, option: Debugger Info
debugger commands, p (print): Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, print: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, printf: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, q (quit): Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, quit: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, r (run): Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, return: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, run: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, s (step): Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, set: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, si (stepi): Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, silent: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, step: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, stepi: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, t (tbreak): Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, tbreak: Breakpoint Control
debugger commands, trace: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
debugger commands, u (until): Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, undisplay: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, until: Debugger Execution Control
debugger commands, unwatch: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, up: Execution Stack
debugger commands, w (watch): Viewing And Changing Data
debugger commands, watch: Viewing And Changing Data
debugger default list amount: Debugger Info
debugger history file: Debugger Info
debugger history size: Debugger Info
debugger options: Debugger Info
debugger prompt: Debugger Info
debugger, how to start: Debugger Invocation
debugger, read commands from a file: Debugger Info
debugging awk programs: Debugger
debugging gawk, bug reports: Bugs
decimal point character, locale specific: Options
decrement operators: Increment Ops
default keyword: Switch Statement
Deifik, Scott: Acknowledgments
Deifik, Scott: Contributors
Deifik, Scott: Bugs
delete array: Delete
delete breakpoint at location: Breakpoint Control
delete breakpoint by number: Breakpoint Control
delete debugger command: Breakpoint Control
delete statement: Delete
delete watchpoint: Viewing And Changing Data
deleting elements in arrays: Delete
deleting entire arrays: Delete
Demaille, Akim: Acknowledgments
describe call stack frame, in debugger: Debugger Info
differences between gawk and awk: String Functions
differences in awk and gawk, ARGC/ARGV variables: ARGC and ARGV
differences in awk and gawk, ARGIND variable: Auto-set
differences in awk and gawk, array elements, deleting: Delete
differences in awk and gawk, AWKLIBPATH environment variable: AWKLIBPATH Variable
differences in awk and gawk, AWKPATH environment variable: AWKPATH Variable
differences in awk and gawk, BEGIN/END patterns: I/O And BEGIN/END
differences in awk and gawk, BEGINFILE/ENDFILE patterns: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
differences in awk and gawk, BINMODE variable: User-modified
differences in awk and gawk, BINMODE variable: PC Using
differences in awk and gawk, close() function: Close Files And Pipes
differences in awk and gawk, close() function: Close Files And Pipes
differences in awk and gawk, command line directories: Command line directories
differences in awk and gawk, ERRNO variable: Auto-set
differences in awk and gawk, error messages: Special FD
differences in awk and gawk, FIELDWIDTHS variable: User-modified
differences in awk and gawk, FPAT variable: User-modified
differences in awk and gawk, FUNCTAB variable: Auto-set
differences in awk and gawk, function arguments (gawk): Calling Built-in
differences in awk and gawk, getline command: Getline
differences in awk and gawk, IGNORECASE variable: User-modified
differences in awk and gawk, implementation limitations: Getline Notes
differences in awk and gawk, implementation limitations: Redirection
differences in awk and gawk, indirect function calls: Indirect Calls
differences in awk and gawk, input/output operators: Getline/Coprocess
differences in awk and gawk, input/output operators: Redirection
differences in awk and gawk, line continuations: Conditional Exp
differences in awk and gawk, LINT variable: User-modified
differences in awk and gawk, match() function: String Functions
differences in awk and gawk, print/printf statements: Format Modifiers
differences in awk and gawk, PROCINFO array: Auto-set
differences in awk and gawk, record separators: Records
differences in awk and gawk, regexp constants: Using Constant Regexps
differences in awk and gawk, regular expressions: Case-sensitivity
differences in awk and gawk, RS/RT variables: Records
differences in awk and gawk, RT variable: Auto-set
differences in awk and gawk, single-character fields: Single Character Fields
differences in awk and gawk, split() function: String Functions
differences in awk and gawk, strings: Scalar Constants
differences in awk and gawk, strings, storing: Records
differences in awk and gawk, SYMTAB variable: Auto-set
differences in awk and gawk, TEXTDOMAIN variable: User-modified
differences in awk and gawk, trunc-mod operation: Arithmetic Ops
directories, command line: Command line directories
directories, searching: Igawk Program
directories, searching for shared libraries: AWKLIBPATH Variable
directories, searching for source files: AWKPATH Variable
disable breakpoint: Breakpoint Control
disable debugger command: Breakpoint Control
display debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
display debugger options: Debugger Info
division: Arithmetic Ops
do-while statement: Do Statement
do-while statement, use of regexps in: Regexp Usage
documentation, of awk programs: Library Names
documentation, online: Manual History
documents, searching: Dupword Program
dollar sign ($), $ field operator: Fields
dollar sign ($), $ field operator: Precedence
dollar sign ($), incrementing fields and arrays: Increment Ops
dollar sign ($), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
double precision floating-point: General Arithmetic
double quote (") in shell commands: Read Terminal
double quote ("), in regexp constants: Computed Regexps
double quote ("), in shell commands: Quoting
down debugger command: Execution Stack
Drepper, Ulrich: Acknowledgments
dump all variables of a program: Options
dump debugger command: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
dupword.awk program: Dupword Program
dynamic profiling: Profiling
dynamically loaded extensions: Dynamic Extensions

E
e debugger command (alias for enable): Breakpoint Control
EBCDIC: Ordinal Functions
effective group ID of gawk user: Auto-set
effective user ID of gawk user: Auto-set
egrep utility: Bracket Expressions
egrep utility: Egrep Program
egrep.awk program: Egrep Program
elements in arrays, assigning values: Assigning Elements
elements in arrays, deleting: Delete
elements in arrays, order of access by in operator: Scanning an Array
elements in arrays, scanning: Scanning an Array
elements of arrays: Reference to Elements
email address for bug reports, bug-gawk@gnu.org: Bugs
EMISTERED: TCP/IP Networking
empty array elements: Reference to Elements
empty pattern: Empty
empty strings: Records
empty strings, See null strings: Regexp Field Splitting
enable breakpoint: Breakpoint Control
enable debugger command: Breakpoint Control
end debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
END pattern: BEGIN/END
END pattern: Using BEGIN/END
END pattern, and profiling: Profiling
END pattern, assert() user-defined function and: Assert Function
END pattern, backslash continuation and: Egrep Program
END pattern, Boolean patterns and: Expression Patterns
END pattern, exit statement and: Exit Statement
END pattern, next/nextfile statements and: I/O And BEGIN/END
END pattern, next/nextfile statements and: Next Statement
END pattern, operators and: Using BEGIN/END
END pattern, print statement and: I/O And BEGIN/END
ENDFILE pattern: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
ENDFILE pattern, Boolean patterns and: Expression Patterns
endfile() user-defined function: Filetrans Function
endgrent() function (C library): Group Functions
endgrent() user-defined function: Group Functions
endpwent() function (C library): Passwd Functions
endpwent() user-defined function: Passwd Functions
ENVIRON array: Auto-set
environment variables used by gawk: Environment Variables
environment variables, in ENVIRON array: Auto-set
epoch, definition of: Glossary
equals sign (=), = operator: Assignment Ops
equals sign (=), == operator: Comparison Operators
equals sign (=), == operator: Precedence
EREs (Extended Regular Expressions): Bracket Expressions
ERRNO variable: Auto-set
ERRNO variable: TCP/IP Networking
ERRNO variable, with BEGINFILE pattern: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
ERRNO variable, with close() function: Close Files And Pipes
ERRNO variable, with getline command: Getline
error handling: Special FD
error handling, ERRNO variable and: Auto-set
error output: Special FD
escape processing, gsub()/gensub()/sub() functions: Gory Details
escape sequences, in strings: Escape Sequences
eval debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
evaluate expressions, in debugger: Viewing And Changing Data
evaluation order: Increment Ops
evaluation order, concatenation: Concatenation
evaluation order, functions: Calling Built-in
examining fields: Fields
exclamation point (!), ! operator: Boolean Ops
exclamation point (!), ! operator: Precedence
exclamation point (!), ! operator: Egrep Program
exclamation point (!), != operator: Comparison Operators
exclamation point (!), != operator: Precedence
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Regexp Usage
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Case-sensitivity
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Computed Regexps
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Regexp Constants
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Comparison Operators
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Comparison Operators
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Precedence
exclamation point (!), !~ operator: Expression Patterns
exit statement: Exit Statement
exit status, of gawk: Exit Status
exit status, of VMS: VMS Running
exit the debugger: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
exp() function: Numeric Functions
expand utility: Very Simple
Expat XML parser library: gawkextlib
exponent: Numeric Functions
expressions: Expressions
expressions, as patterns: Expression Patterns
expressions, assignment: Assignment Ops
expressions, Boolean: Boolean Ops
expressions, comparison: Typing and Comparison
expressions, conditional: Conditional Exp
expressions, matching, See comparison expressions: Typing and Comparison
expressions, selecting: Conditional Exp
Extended Regular Expressions (EREs): Bracket Expressions
extension API: Extension API Description
extension API informational variables: Extension API Informational Variables
extension API version: Extension Versioning
extension API, version number: Auto-set
extension example: Extension Example
extension registration: Registration Functions
extension search path: Finding Extensions
extensions distributed with gawk: Extension Samples
extensions, allocating memory: Memory Allocation Functions
extensions, Brian Kernighan’s awk: BTL
extensions, Brian Kernighan’s awk: Common Extensions
extensions, common, ** operator: Arithmetic Ops
extensions, common, **= operator: Assignment Ops
extensions, common, /dev/stderr special file: Special FD
extensions, common, /dev/stdin special file: Special FD
extensions, common, /dev/stdout special file: Special FD
extensions, common, BINMODE variable: PC Using
extensions, common, delete to delete entire arrays: Delete
extensions, common, fflush() function: I/O Functions
extensions, common, func keyword: Definition Syntax
extensions, common, length() applied to an array: String Functions
extensions, common, RS as a regexp: Records
extensions, common, single character fields: Single Character Fields
extensions, common, \x escape sequence: Escape Sequences
extensions, in gawk, not in POSIX awk: POSIX/GNU
extensions, mawk: Common Extensions
extensions, where to find: gawkextlib
extract.awk program: Extract Program
extraction, of marked strings (internationalization): String Extraction

F
f debugger command (alias for frame): Execution Stack
false, logical: Truth Values
FDL (Free Documentation License): GNU Free Documentation License
features, adding to gawk: Adding Code
features, advanced, See advanced features: Obsolete
features, deprecated: Obsolete
features, undocumented: Undocumented
Fenlason, Jay: History
Fenlason, Jay: Contributors
fflush() function: I/O Functions
field numbers: Nonconstant Fields
field operator $: Fields
field operators, dollar sign as: Fields
field separator, in multiline records: Multiple Line
field separator, on command line: Command Line Field Separator
field separator, POSIX and: Field Splitting Summary
field separators: Field Separators
field separators: User-modified
field separators: User-modified
field separators, choice of: Field Separators
field separators, FIELDWIDTHS variable and: User-modified
field separators, FPAT variable and: User-modified
field separators, POSIX and: Fields
field separators, regular expressions as: Field Separators
field separators, regular expressions as: Regexp Field Splitting
field separators, See Also OFS: Changing Fields
field separators, spaces as: Cut Program
fields: Reading Files
fields: Fields
fields: Basic High Level
fields, adding: Changing Fields
fields, changing contents of: Changing Fields
fields, cutting: Cut Program
fields, examining: Fields
fields, number of: Fields
fields, numbers: Nonconstant Fields
fields, printing: Print Examples
fields, separating: Field Separators
fields, separating: Field Separators
fields, single-character: Single Character Fields
FIELDWIDTHS variable: Constant Size
FIELDWIDTHS variable: User-modified
file descriptors: Special FD
file names, distinguishing: Auto-set
file names, in compatibility mode: Special Caveats
file names, standard streams in gawk: Special FD
FILENAME variable: Reading Files
FILENAME variable: Auto-set
FILENAME variable, getline, setting with: Getline Notes
filenames, assignments as: Ignoring Assigns
files, .gmo: Explaining gettext
files, .gmo, converting from .po: I18N Example
files, .gmo, specifying directory of: Explaining gettext
files, .gmo, specifying directory of: Programmer i18n
files, .po: Explaining gettext
files, .po: Translator i18n
files, .po, converting to .gmo: I18N Example
files, .pot: Explaining gettext
files, /dev/… special files: Special FD
files, /inet/… (gawk): TCP/IP Networking
files, /inet4/… (gawk): TCP/IP Networking
files, /inet6/… (gawk): TCP/IP Networking
files, awk programs in: Long
files, awkprof.out: Profiling
files, awkvars.out: Options
files, closing: I/O Functions
files, descriptors, See file descriptors: Special FD
files, group: Group Functions
files, initialization and cleanup: Filetrans Function
files, input, See input files: Read Terminal
files, log, timestamps in: Time Functions
files, managing: Data File Management
files, managing, data file boundaries: Filetrans Function
files, message object: Explaining gettext
files, message object, converting from portable object files: I18N Example
files, message object, specifying directory of: Explaining gettext
files, message object, specifying directory of: Programmer i18n
files, multiple passes over: Other Arguments
files, multiple, duplicating output into: Tee Program
files, output, See output files: Close Files And Pipes
files, password: Passwd Functions
files, portable object: Explaining gettext
files, portable object: Translator i18n
files, portable object template: Explaining gettext
files, portable object, converting to message object files: I18N Example
files, portable object, generating: Options
files, processing, ARGIND variable and: Auto-set
files, reading: Rewind Function
files, reading, multiline records: Multiple Line
files, searching for regular expressions: Egrep Program
files, skipping: File Checking
files, source, search path for: Igawk Program
files, splitting: Split Program
files, Texinfo, extracting programs from: Extract Program
find substring in string: String Functions
finding extensions: Finding Extensions
finish debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
Fish, Fred: Contributors
fixed-width data: Constant Size
flag variables: Boolean Ops
flag variables: Tee Program
floating-point, numbers: General Arithmetic
floating-point, numbers: Unexpected Results
floating-point, numbers, arbitrary precision: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
floating-point, VAX/VMS: VMS Running
flush buffered output: I/O Functions
fnmatch() extension function: Extension Sample Fnmatch
FNR variable: Records
FNR variable: Auto-set
FNR variable, changing: Auto-set
for statement: For Statement
for statement, looping over arrays: Scanning an Array
fork() extension function: Extension Sample Fork
format specifiers: Basic Printf
format specifiers, mixing regular with positional specifiers: Printf Ordering
format specifiers, printf statement: Control Letters
format specifiers, strftime() function (gawk): Time Functions
format time string: Time Functions
formats, numeric output: OFMT
formatting output: Printf
formatting strings: String Functions
forward slash (/) to enclose regular expressions: Regexp
forward slash (/), / operator: Precedence
forward slash (/), /= operator: Assignment Ops
forward slash (/), /= operator: Precedence
forward slash (/), /= operator, vs. /=…/ regexp constant: Assignment Ops
forward slash (/), patterns and: Expression Patterns
FPAT variable: Splitting By Content
FPAT variable: User-modified
frame debugger command: Execution Stack
Free Documentation License (FDL): GNU Free Documentation License
Free Software Foundation (FSF): Manual History
Free Software Foundation (FSF): Getting
Free Software Foundation (FSF): Glossary
Free Software Foundation (FSF): Glossary
FreeBSD: Glossary
FS variable: Field Separators
FS variable: User-modified
FS variable, --field-separator option and: Options
FS variable, as null string: Single Character Fields
FS variable, as TAB character: Options
FS variable, changing value of: Field Separators
FS variable, running awk programs and: Cut Program
FS variable, setting from command line: Command Line Field Separator
FS, containing ^: Regexp Field Splitting
FS, in multiline records: Multiple Line
FSF (Free Software Foundation): Manual History
FSF (Free Software Foundation): Getting
FSF (Free Software Foundation): Glossary
FSF (Free Software Foundation): Glossary
fts() extension function: Extension Sample File Functions
FUNCTAB array: Auto-set
function calls: Function Calls
function calls, indirect: Indirect Calls
function definition example: Function Example
function pointers: Indirect Calls
functions, arrays as parameters to: Pass By Value/Reference
functions, built-in: Function Calls
functions, built-in: Functions
functions, built-in, evaluation order: Calling Built-in
functions, defining: Definition Syntax
functions, library: Library Functions
functions, library, assertions: Assert Function
functions, library, associative arrays and: Library Names
functions, library, C library: Getopt Function
functions, library, character values as numbers: Ordinal Functions
functions, library, Cliff random numbers: Cliff Random Function
functions, library, command-line options: Getopt Function
functions, library, example program for using: Igawk Program
functions, library, group database, reading: Group Functions
functions, library, managing data files: Data File Management
functions, library, managing time: Getlocaltime Function
functions, library, merging arrays into strings: Join Function
functions, library, rounding numbers: Round Function
functions, library, user database, reading: Passwd Functions
functions, names of: Arrays
functions, names of: Definition Syntax
functions, recursive: Definition Syntax
functions, string-translation: I18N Functions
functions, undefined: Pass By Value/Reference
functions, user-defined: User-defined
functions, user-defined, calling: Function Caveats
functions, user-defined, counts, in a profile: Profiling
functions, user-defined, library of: Library Functions
functions, user-defined, next/nextfile statements and: Next Statement
functions, user-defined, next/nextfile statements and: Nextfile Statement

G
G-d: Acknowledgments
Garfinkle, Scott: Contributors
gawk program, dynamic profiling: Profiling
gawk version: Auto-set
gawk, ARGIND variable in: Other Arguments
gawk, awk and: Preface
gawk, awk and: This Manual
gawk, bitwise operations in: Bitwise Functions
gawk, break statement in: Break Statement
gawk, built-in variables and: Built-in Variables
gawk, character classes and: Bracket Expressions
gawk, coding style in: Adding Code
gawk, command-line options, and regular expressions: GNU Regexp Operators
gawk, comparison operators and: Comparison Operators
gawk, configuring: Configuration Philosophy
gawk, configuring, options: Additional Configuration Options
gawk, continue statement in: Continue Statement
gawk, distribution: Distribution contents
gawk, ERRNO variable in: Getline
gawk, ERRNO variable in: Close Files And Pipes
gawk, ERRNO variable in: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
gawk, ERRNO variable in: Auto-set
gawk, ERRNO variable in: TCP/IP Networking
gawk, escape sequences: Escape Sequences
gawk, extensions, disabling: Options
gawk, features, adding: Adding Code
gawk, features, advanced: Advanced Features
gawk, field separators and: User-modified
gawk, FIELDWIDTHS variable in: Constant Size
gawk, FIELDWIDTHS variable in: User-modified
gawk, file names in: Special Files
gawk, format-control characters: Control Letters
gawk, format-control characters: Control Letters
gawk, FPAT variable in: Splitting By Content
gawk, FPAT variable in: User-modified
gawk, FUNCTAB array in: Auto-set
gawk, function arguments and: Calling Built-in
gawk, hexadecimal numbers and: Nondecimal-numbers
gawk, IGNORECASE variable in: Case-sensitivity
gawk, IGNORECASE variable in: User-modified
gawk, IGNORECASE variable in: Array Intro
gawk, IGNORECASE variable in: String Functions
gawk, IGNORECASE variable in: Array Sorting Functions
gawk, implementation issues: Notes
gawk, implementation issues, debugging: Compatibility Mode
gawk, implementation issues, downward compatibility: Compatibility Mode
gawk, implementation issues, limits: Getline Notes
gawk, implementation issues, pipes: Redirection
gawk, installing: Installation
gawk, internationalization and, See internationalization: Internationalization
gawk, interpreter, adding code to: Using Internal File Ops
gawk, interval expressions and: Regexp Operators
gawk, line continuation in: Conditional Exp
gawk, LINT variable in: User-modified
gawk, list of contributors to: Contributors
gawk, MS-DOS version of: PC Using
gawk, MS-Windows version of: PC Using
gawk, newlines in: Statements/Lines
gawk, octal numbers and: Nondecimal-numbers
gawk, OS/2 version of: PC Using
gawk, PROCINFO array in: Auto-set
gawk, PROCINFO array in: Auto-set
gawk, PROCINFO array in: Time Functions
gawk, PROCINFO array in: Two-way I/O
gawk, regexp constants and: Using Constant Regexps
gawk, regular expressions, case sensitivity: Case-sensitivity
gawk, regular expressions, operators: GNU Regexp Operators
gawk, regular expressions, precedence: Regexp Operators
gawk, RT variable in: Records
gawk, RT variable in: Multiple Line
gawk, RT variable in: Auto-set
gawk, See Also awk: Preface
gawk, source code, obtaining: Getting
gawk, splitting fields and: Constant Size
gawk, string-translation functions: I18N Functions
gawk, SYMTAB array in: Auto-set
gawk, TEXTDOMAIN variable in: User-modified
gawk, timestamps: Time Functions
gawk, uses for: Preface
gawk, versions of, information about, printing: Options
gawk, VMS version of: VMS Installation
gawk, word-boundary operator: GNU Regexp Operators
gawkextlib: gawkextlib
gawkextlib project: gawkextlib
General Public License (GPL): Glossary
General Public License, See GPL: Manual History
generate time values: Time Functions
gensub() function (gawk): Using Constant Regexps
gensub() function (gawk): String Functions
gensub() function (gawk), escape processing: Gory Details
getaddrinfo() function (C library): TCP/IP Networking
getgrent() function (C library): Group Functions
getgrent() function (C library): Group Functions
getgrent() user-defined function: Group Functions
getgrent() user-defined function: Group Functions
getgrgid() function (C library): Group Functions
getgrgid() user-defined function: Group Functions
getgrnam() function (C library): Group Functions
getgrnam() user-defined function: Group Functions
getgruser() function (C library): Group Functions
getgruser() function, user-defined: Group Functions
getline command: Reading Files
getline command, coprocesses, using from: Getline/Coprocess
getline command, coprocesses, using from: Close Files And Pipes
getline command, deadlock and: Two-way I/O
getline command, explicit input with: Getline
getline command, FILENAME variable and: Getline Notes
getline command, return values: Getline
getline command, variants: Getline Summary
getline command, _gr_init() user-defined function: Group Functions
getline command, _pw_init() function: Passwd Functions
getline from a file: Getline/File
getline into a variable: Getline/Variable
getline statement, BEGINFILE/ENDFILE patterns and: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
getlocaltime() user-defined function: Getlocaltime Function
getopt() function (C library): Getopt Function
getopt() user-defined function: Getopt Function
getopt() user-defined function: Getopt Function
getpwent() function (C library): Passwd Functions
getpwent() function (C library): Passwd Functions
getpwent() user-defined function: Passwd Functions
getpwent() user-defined function: Passwd Functions
getpwnam() function (C library): Passwd Functions
getpwnam() user-defined function: Passwd Functions
getpwuid() function (C library): Passwd Functions
getpwuid() user-defined function: Passwd Functions
gettext library: Explaining gettext
gettext library, locale categories: Explaining gettext
gettext() function (C library): Explaining gettext
gettimeofday() extension function: Extension Sample Time
git utility: gawkextlib
git utility: Other Versions
git utility: Accessing The Source
git utility: Adding Code
git, use of for gawk source code: Derived Files
GMP: Gawk and MPFR
GNITS mailing list: Acknowledgments
GNU awk, See gawk: Preface
GNU Free Documentation License: GNU Free Documentation License
GNU General Public License: Glossary
GNU Lesser General Public License: Glossary
GNU long options: Command Line
GNU long options: Options
GNU long options, printing list of: Options
GNU Project: Manual History
GNU Project: Glossary
GNU/Linux: Manual History
GNU/Linux: I18N Example
GNU/Linux: Glossary
Gordon, Assaf: Contributors
GPL (General Public License): Manual History
GPL (General Public License): Glossary
GPL (General Public License), printing: Options
grcat program: Group Functions
Grigera, Juan: Contributors
group database, reading: Group Functions
group file: Group Functions
group ID of gawk user: Auto-set
groups, information about: Group Functions
gsub() function: Using Constant Regexps
gsub() function: String Functions
gsub() function, arguments of: String Functions
gsub() function, escape processing: Gory Details

H
h debugger command (alias for help): Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
Hankerson, Darrel: Acknowledgments
Hankerson, Darrel: Contributors
Haque, John: Contributors
Hartholz, Elaine: Acknowledgments
Hartholz, Marshall: Acknowledgments
Hasegawa, Isamu: Contributors
help debugger command: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
hexadecimal numbers: Nondecimal-numbers
hexadecimal values, enabling interpretation of: Options
history expansion, in debugger: Readline Support
histsort.awk program: History Sorting
Hughes, Phil: Acknowledgments
HUP signal, for dynamic profiling: Profiling
hyphen (-), - operator: Precedence
hyphen (-), - operator: Precedence
hyphen (-), -- operator: Increment Ops
hyphen (-), -- operator: Precedence
hyphen (-), -= operator: Assignment Ops
hyphen (-), -= operator: Precedence
hyphen (-), filenames beginning with: Options
hyphen (-), in bracket expressions: Bracket Expressions

I
i debugger command (alias for info): Debugger Info
id utility: Id Program
id.awk program: Id Program
IEEE-754 format: Floating-point Representation
if statement: If Statement
if statement, actions, changing: Ranges
if statement, use of regexps in: Regexp Usage
igawk.sh program: Igawk Program
ignore breakpoint: Breakpoint Control
ignore debugger command: Breakpoint Control
IGNORECASE variable: User-modified
IGNORECASE variable, and array indices: Array Intro
IGNORECASE variable, and array sorting functions: Array Sorting Functions
IGNORECASE variable, in example programs: Library Functions
IGNORECASE variable, with ~ and !~ operators: Case-sensitivity
Illumos: Other Versions
Illumos, POSIX-compliant awk: Other Versions
implementation issues, gawk: Notes
implementation issues, gawk, debugging: Compatibility Mode
implementation issues, gawk, limits: Getline Notes
implementation issues, gawk, limits: Redirection
in operator: Comparison Operators
in operator: Precedence
in operator: For Statement
in operator, index existence in multidimensional arrays: Multidimensional
in operator, order of array access: Scanning an Array
in operator, testing if array element exists: Reference to Elements
in operator, use in loops: Scanning an Array
increment operators: Increment Ops
index() function: String Functions
indexing arrays: Array Intro
indirect function calls: Indirect Calls
infinite precision: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
info debugger command: Debugger Info
initialization, automatic: More Complex
inplace extension: Extension Sample Inplace
input files: Reading Files
input files, closing: Close Files And Pipes
input files, counting elements in: Wc Program
input files, examples: Sample Data Files
input files, reading: Reading Files
input files, running awk without: Read Terminal
input files, running awk without: Read Terminal
input files, variable assignments and: Other Arguments
input pipeline: Getline/Pipe
input record, length of: String Functions
input redirection: Getline/File
input, data, nondecimal: Nondecimal Data
input, explicit: Getline
input, files, See input files: Multiple Line
input, multiline records: Multiple Line
input, splitting into records: Records
input, standard: Read Terminal
input, standard: Special FD
input/output functions: I/O Functions
input/output, binary: User-modified
input/output, from BEGIN and END: I/O And BEGIN/END
input/output, two-way: Two-way I/O
insomnia, cure for: Alarm Program
installation, VMS: VMS Installation
installing gawk: Installation
instruction tracing, in debugger: Debugger Info
INT signal (MS-Windows): Profiling
int() function: Numeric Functions
integer array indices: Numeric Array Subscripts
integers: General Arithmetic
integers, arbitrary precision: Arbitrary Precision Integers
integers, unsigned: General Arithmetic
interacting with other programs: I/O Functions
internationalization: I18N Functions
internationalization: I18N and L10N
internationalization, localization: User-modified
internationalization, localization: Internationalization
internationalization, localization, character classes: Bracket Expressions
internationalization, localization, gawk and: Internationalization
internationalization, localization, locale categories: Explaining gettext
internationalization, localization, marked strings: Programmer i18n
internationalization, localization, portability and: I18N Portability
internationalizing a program: Explaining gettext
interpreted programs: Basic High Level
interpreted programs: Glossary
interval expressions, regexp operator: Regexp Operators
inventory-shipped file: Sample Data Files
invoke shell command: I/O Functions
isarray() function (gawk): Type Functions
ISO: Glossary
ISO 8859-1: Glossary
ISO Latin-1: Glossary

J
Jacobs, Andrew: Passwd Functions
Jaegermann, Michal: Acknowledgments
Jaegermann, Michal: Contributors
Java implementation of awk: Other Versions
Java programming language: Glossary
jawk: Other Versions
Jedi knights: Undocumented
join() user-defined function: Join Function

K
Kahrs, Jürgen: Acknowledgments
Kahrs, Jürgen: Contributors
Kasal, Stepan: Acknowledgments
Kenobi, Obi-Wan: Undocumented
Kernighan, Brian: History
Kernighan, Brian: Conventions
Kernighan, Brian: Acknowledgments
Kernighan, Brian: Getline/Pipe
Kernighan, Brian: Concatenation
Kernighan, Brian: Library Functions
Kernighan, Brian: BTL
Kernighan, Brian: Contributors
Kernighan, Brian: Other Versions
Kernighan, Brian: Basic Data Typing
Kernighan, Brian: Glossary
kill command, dynamic profiling: Profiling
Knights, jedi: Undocumented
Knuth, Donald: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
Kwok, Conrad: Contributors

L
l debugger command (alias for list): Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
labels.awk program: Labels Program
languages, data-driven: Basic High Level
Laurie, Dirk: Changing Precision
LC_ALL locale category: Explaining gettext
LC_COLLATE locale category: Explaining gettext
LC_CTYPE locale category: Explaining gettext
LC_MESSAGES locale category: Explaining gettext
LC_MESSAGES locale category, bindtextdomain() function (gawk): Programmer i18n
LC_MONETARY locale category: Explaining gettext
LC_NUMERIC locale category: Explaining gettext
LC_RESPONSE locale category: Explaining gettext
LC_TIME locale category: Explaining gettext
left angle bracket (<), < operator: Comparison Operators
left angle bracket (<), < operator: Precedence
left angle bracket (<), < operator (I/O): Getline/File
left angle bracket (<), <= operator: Comparison Operators
left angle bracket (<), <= operator: Precedence
left shift: Bitwise Functions
left shift, bitwise: Bitwise Functions
leftmost longest match: Multiple Line
length of input record: String Functions
length of string: String Functions
length() function: String Functions
Lesser General Public License (LGPL): Glossary
LGPL (Lesser General Public License): Glossary
libmawk: Other Versions
libraries of awk functions: Library Functions
libraries of awk functions, assertions: Assert Function
libraries of awk functions, associative arrays and: Library Names
libraries of awk functions, character values as numbers: Ordinal Functions
libraries of awk functions, command-line options: Getopt Function
libraries of awk functions, example program for using: Igawk Program
libraries of awk functions, group database, reading: Group Functions
libraries of awk functions, managing, data files: Data File Management
libraries of awk functions, managing, time: Getlocaltime Function
libraries of awk functions, merging arrays into strings: Join Function
libraries of awk functions, rounding numbers: Round Function
libraries of awk functions, user database, reading: Passwd Functions
line breaks: Statements/Lines
line continuations: Boolean Ops
line continuations, gawk: Conditional Exp
line continuations, in print statement: Print Examples
line continuations, with C shell: More Complex
lines, blank, printing: Print
lines, counting: Wc Program
lines, duplicate, removing: History Sorting
lines, matching ranges of: Ranges
lines, skipping between markers: Ranges
lint checking: User-modified
lint checking, array elements: Delete
lint checking, array subscripts: Uninitialized Subscripts
lint checking, empty programs: Command Line
lint checking, issuing warnings: Options
lint checking, POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options
lint checking, undefined functions: Pass By Value/Reference
LINT variable: User-modified
Linux: Manual History
Linux: I18N Example
Linux: Glossary
list all global variables, in debugger: Debugger Info
list debugger command: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
list function definitions, in debugger: Debugger Info
loading, library: Options
local variables, in a function: Variable Scope
locale categories: Explaining gettext
locale decimal point character: Options
locale, definition of: Locales
localization: I18N and L10N
localization, See internationalization, localization: I18N and L10N
log files, timestamps in: Time Functions
log() function: Numeric Functions
logarithm: Numeric Functions
logical false/true: Truth Values
logical operators, See Boolean expressions: Boolean Ops
login information: Passwd Functions
long options: Command Line
loops: While Statement
loops, break statement and: Break Statement
loops, continue statements and: For Statement
loops, count for header, in a profile: Profiling
loops, do-while: Do Statement
loops, exiting: Break Statement
loops, for, array scanning: Scanning an Array
loops, for, iterative: For Statement
loops, See Also while statement: While Statement
loops, while: While Statement
ls utility: More Complex
lshift() function (gawk): Bitwise Functions
lvalues/rvalues: Assignment Ops

M
mail-list file: Sample Data Files
mailing labels, printing: Labels Program
mailing list, GNITS: Acknowledgments
Malmberg, John: Acknowledgments
Malmberg, John: Bugs
mark parity: Ordinal Functions
marked string extraction (internationalization): String Extraction
marked strings, extracting: String Extraction
Marx, Groucho: Increment Ops
match regexp in string: String Functions
match() function: String Functions
match() function, RSTART/RLENGTH variables: String Functions
matching, expressions, See comparison expressions: Typing and Comparison
matching, leftmost longest: Multiple Line
matching, null strings: Gory Details
mawk utility: Escape Sequences
mawk utility: Getline/Pipe
mawk utility: Concatenation
mawk utility: Nextfile Statement
mawk utility: Other Versions
maximum precision supported by MPFR library: Auto-set
McPhee, Patrick: Contributors
message object files: Explaining gettext
message object files, converting from portable object files: I18N Example
message object files, specifying directory of: Explaining gettext
message object files, specifying directory of: Programmer i18n
messages from extensions: Printing Messages
metacharacters in regular expressions: Regexp Operators
metacharacters, escape sequences for: Escape Sequences
minimum precision supported by MPFR library: Auto-set
mktime() function (gawk): Time Functions
modifiers, in format specifiers: Format Modifiers
monetary information, localization: Explaining gettext
MPFR: Gawk and MPFR
msgfmt utility: I18N Example
multiple precision: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic
multiple-line records: Multiple Line

N
n debugger command (alias for next): Debugger Execution Control
names, arrays/variables: Arrays
names, arrays/variables: Library Names
names, functions: Definition Syntax
names, functions: Library Names
namespace issues: Arrays
namespace issues: Library Names
namespace issues, functions: Definition Syntax
nawk utility: Names
negative zero: Unexpected Results
NetBSD: Glossary
networks, programming: TCP/IP Networking
networks, support for: Special Network
newlines: Statements/Lines
newlines: Options
newlines: Boolean Ops
newlines, as field separators: Default Field Splitting
newlines, as record separators: Records
newlines, in dynamic regexps: Computed Regexps
newlines, in regexp constants: Computed Regexps
newlines, printing: Print Examples
newlines, separating statements in actions: Action Overview
newlines, separating statements in actions: Statements
next debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
next file statement: Feature History
next statement: Boolean Ops
next statement: Next Statement
next statement, BEGIN/END patterns and: I/O And BEGIN/END
next statement, BEGINFILE/ENDFILE patterns and: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
next statement, user-defined functions and: Next Statement
nextfile statement: Nextfile Statement
nextfile statement, BEGIN/END patterns and: I/O And BEGIN/END
nextfile statement, BEGINFILE/ENDFILE patterns and: BEGINFILE/ENDFILE
nextfile statement, user-defined functions and: Nextfile Statement
nexti debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
NF variable: Fields
NF variable: Auto-set
NF variable, decrementing: Changing Fields
ni debugger command (alias for nexti): Debugger Execution Control
noassign.awk program: Ignoring Assigns
non-existent array elements: Reference to Elements
not Boolean-logic operator: Boolean Ops
NR variable: Records
NR variable: Auto-set
NR variable, changing: Auto-set
null strings: Records
null strings: Regexp Field Splitting
null strings: Truth Values
null strings: Basic Data Typing
null strings in gawk arguments, quoting and: Quoting
null strings, and deleting array elements: Delete
null strings, as array subscripts: Uninitialized Subscripts
null strings, converting numbers to strings: Conversion
null strings, matching: Gory Details
number as string of bits: Bitwise Functions
number of array elements: String Functions
number sign (#), #! (executable scripts): Executable Scripts
number sign (#), commenting: Comments
numbers, as array subscripts: Numeric Array Subscripts
numbers, as values of characters: Ordinal Functions
numbers, Cliff random: Cliff Random Function
numbers, converting: Conversion
numbers, converting: Bitwise Functions
numbers, converting, to strings: User-modified
numbers, converting, to strings: User-modified
numbers, floating-point: General Arithmetic
numbers, hexadecimal: Nondecimal-numbers
numbers, octal: Nondecimal-numbers
numbers, rounding: Round Function
numeric constants: Scalar Constants
numeric functions: Numeric Functions
numeric, output format: OFMT
numeric, strings: Variable Typing

O
o debugger command (alias for option): Debugger Info
oawk utility: Names
obsolete features: Obsolete
octal numbers: Nondecimal-numbers
octal values, enabling interpretation of: Options
OFMT variable: OFMT
OFMT variable: Conversion
OFMT variable: User-modified
OFMT variable, POSIX awk and: OFMT
OFS variable: Changing Fields
OFS variable: Output Separators
OFS variable: User-modified
OpenBSD: Glossary
OpenSolaris: Other Versions
operating systems, BSD-based: Manual History
operating systems, PC, gawk on: PC Using
operating systems, PC, gawk on, installing: PC Installation
operating systems, porting gawk to: New Ports
operating systems, See Also GNU/Linux, PC operating systems, Unix: Installation
operations, bitwise: Bitwise Functions
operators, arithmetic: Arithmetic Ops
operators, assignment: Assignment Ops
operators, assignment: Assignment Ops
operators, assignment, evaluation order: Assignment Ops
operators, Boolean, See Boolean expressions: Boolean Ops
operators, decrement/increment: Increment Ops
operators, GNU-specific: GNU Regexp Operators
operators, input/output: Getline/File
operators, input/output: Getline/Pipe
operators, input/output: Getline/Coprocess
operators, input/output: Redirection
operators, input/output: Redirection
operators, input/output: Precedence
operators, input/output: Precedence
operators, input/output: Precedence
operators, logical, See Boolean expressions: Boolean Ops
operators, precedence: Increment Ops
operators, precedence: Precedence
operators, relational, See operators, comparison: Typing and Comparison
operators, short-circuit: Boolean Ops
operators, string: Concatenation
operators, string-matching: Regexp Usage
operators, string-matching, for buffers: GNU Regexp Operators
operators, word-boundary (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
option debugger command: Debugger Info
options, command-line: Options
options, command-line, end of: Options
options, command-line, invoking awk: Command Line
options, command-line, processing: Getopt Function
options, deprecated: Obsolete
options, long: Command Line
options, long: Options
options, printing list of: Options
OR bitwise operation: Bitwise Functions
or Boolean-logic operator: Boolean Ops
or() function (gawk): Bitwise Functions
ord() extension function: Extension Sample Ord
ord() user-defined function: Ordinal Functions
order of evaluation, concatenation: Concatenation
ORS variable: Output Separators
ORS variable: User-modified
output field separator, See OFS variable: Changing Fields
output record separator, See ORS variable: Output Separators
output redirection: Redirection
output wrapper: Output Wrappers
output, buffering: I/O Functions
output, buffering: I/O Functions
output, duplicating into files: Tee Program
output, files, closing: Close Files And Pipes
output, format specifier, OFMT: OFMT
output, formatted: Printf
output, pipes: Redirection
output, printing, See printing: Printing
output, records: Output Separators
output, standard: Special FD

P
p debugger command (alias for print): Viewing And Changing Data
P1003.1 POSIX standard: Glossary
parent process ID of gawk process: Auto-set
parentheses (), in a profile: Profiling
parentheses (), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
password file: Passwd Functions
patsplit() function (gawk): String Functions
patterns: Patterns and Actions
patterns, comparison expressions as: Expression Patterns
patterns, counts, in a profile: Profiling
patterns, default: Very Simple
patterns, empty: Empty
patterns, expressions as: Regexp Patterns
patterns, ranges in: Ranges
patterns, regexp constants as: Expression Patterns
patterns, types of: Pattern Overview
pawk (profiling version of Brian Kernighan’s awk): Other Versions
pawk, awk-like facilities for Python: Other Versions
PC operating systems, gawk on: PC Using
PC operating systems, gawk on, installing: PC Installation
percent sign (%), % operator: Precedence
percent sign (%), %= operator: Assignment Ops
percent sign (%), %= operator: Precedence
period (.), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
Perl: Future Extensions
Peters, Arno: Contributors
Peterson, Hal: Contributors
pipe, closing: Close Files And Pipes
pipe, input: Getline/Pipe
pipe, output: Redirection
Pitts, Dave: Acknowledgments
Pitts, Dave: Bugs
Plauger, P.J.: Library Functions
plug-in: Extension Intro
plus sign (+), + operator: Precedence
plus sign (+), + operator: Precedence
plus sign (+), ++ operator: Increment Ops
plus sign (+), ++ operator: Increment Ops
plus sign (+), ++ operator: Precedence
plus sign (+), += operator: Assignment Ops
plus sign (+), += operator: Precedence
plus sign (+), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
pointers to functions: Indirect Calls
portability: Escape Sequences
portability, #! (executable scripts): Executable Scripts
portability, ** operator and: Arithmetic Ops
portability, **= operator and: Assignment Ops
portability, ARGV variable: Executable Scripts
portability, backslash continuation and: Statements/Lines
portability, backslash in escape sequences: Escape Sequences
portability, close() function and: Close Files And Pipes
portability, data files as single record: Records
portability, deleting array elements: Delete
portability, example programs: Library Functions
portability, functions, defining: Definition Syntax
portability, gawk: New Ports
portability, gettext library and: Explaining gettext
portability, internationalization and: I18N Portability
portability, length() function: String Functions
portability, new awk vs. old awk: Conversion
portability, next statement in user-defined functions: Pass By Value/Reference
portability, NF variable, decrementing: Changing Fields
portability, operators: Increment Ops
portability, operators, not in POSIX awk: Precedence
portability, POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options
portability, substr() function: String Functions
portable object files: Explaining gettext
portable object files: Translator i18n
portable object files, converting to message object files: I18N Example
portable object files, generating: Options
portable object template files: Explaining gettext
porting gawk: New Ports
positional specifiers, printf statement: Format Modifiers
positional specifiers, printf statement: Printf Ordering
positional specifiers, printf statement, mixing with regular formats: Printf Ordering
positive zero: Unexpected Results
POSIX awk: This Manual
POSIX awk: Assignment Ops
POSIX awk, ** operator and: Precedence
POSIX awk, **= operator and: Assignment Ops
POSIX awk, < operator and: Getline/File
POSIX awk, arithmetic operators and: Arithmetic Ops
POSIX awk, backslashes in string constants: Escape Sequences
POSIX awk, BEGIN/END patterns: I/O And BEGIN/END
POSIX awk, bracket expressions and: Bracket Expressions
POSIX awk, bracket expressions and, character classes: Bracket Expressions
POSIX awk, bracket expressions and, character classes: Bracket Expressions
POSIX awk, break statement and: Break Statement
POSIX awk, changes in awk versions: POSIX
POSIX awk, continue statement and: Continue Statement
POSIX awk, CONVFMT variable and: User-modified
POSIX awk, date utility and: Time Functions
POSIX awk, field separators and: Fields
POSIX awk, field separators and: Field Splitting Summary
POSIX awk, FS variable and: User-modified
POSIX awk, function keyword in: Definition Syntax
POSIX awk, functions and, gsub()/sub(): Gory Details
POSIX awk, functions and, length(): String Functions
POSIX awk, GNU long options and: Options
POSIX awk, interval expressions in: Regexp Operators
POSIX awk, next/nextfile statements and: Next Statement
POSIX awk, numeric strings and: Variable Typing
POSIX awk, OFMT variable and: OFMT
POSIX awk, OFMT variable and: Conversion
POSIX awk, period (.), using: Regexp Operators
POSIX awk, printf format strings and: Format Modifiers
POSIX awk, regular expressions and: Regexp Operators
POSIX awk, timestamps and: Time Functions
POSIX awk, | I/O operator and: Getline/Pipe
POSIX mode: Options
POSIX mode: Options
POSIX, awk and: Preface
POSIX, gawk extensions not included in: POSIX/GNU
POSIX, programs, implementing in awk: Clones
POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable: Options
PREC variable: User-modified
PREC variable: Setting Precision
precedence: Increment Ops
precedence: Precedence
precedence, regexp operators: Regexp Operators
print debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
print statement: Printing
print statement, BEGIN/END patterns and: I/O And BEGIN/END
print statement, commas, omitting: Print Examples
print statement, I/O operators in: Precedence
print statement, line continuations and: Print Examples
print statement, OFMT variable and: User-modified
print statement, See Also redirection, of output: Redirection
print statement, sprintf() function and: Round Function
print variables, in debugger: Viewing And Changing Data
printf debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
printf statement: Printing
printf statement: Printf
printf statement, columns, aligning: Print Examples
printf statement, format-control characters: Control Letters
printf statement, I/O operators in: Precedence
printf statement, modifiers: Format Modifiers
printf statement, positional specifiers: Format Modifiers
printf statement, positional specifiers: Printf Ordering
printf statement, positional specifiers, mixing with regular formats: Printf Ordering
printf statement, See Also redirection, of output: Redirection
printf statement, sprintf() function and: Round Function
printf statement, syntax of: Basic Printf
printing: Printing
printing messages from extensions: Printing Messages
printing, list of options: Options
printing, mailing labels: Labels Program
printing, unduplicated lines of text: Uniq Program
printing, user information: Id Program
private variables: Library Names
process group idIDof gawk process: Auto-set
process ID of gawk process: Auto-set
processes, two-way communications with: Two-way I/O
processing data: Basic High Level
PROCINFO array: Auto-set
PROCINFO array: Time Functions
PROCINFO array: Passwd Functions
PROCINFO array, and communications via ptys: Two-way I/O
PROCINFO array, and group membership: Group Functions
PROCINFO array, and user and group ID numbers: Id Program
PROCINFO array, testing the field splitting: Passwd Functions
PROCINFO array, uses: Auto-set
PROCINFO, values of sorted_in: Controlling Scanning
profiling awk programs: Profiling
profiling awk programs, dynamically: Profiling
program identifiers: Auto-set
program, definition of: Getting Started
programmers, attractiveness of: Two-way I/O
programming conventions, --non-decimal-data option: Nondecimal Data
programming conventions, ARGC/ARGV variables: Auto-set
programming conventions, exit statement: Exit Statement
programming conventions, function parameters: Return Statement
programming conventions, functions, calling: Calling Built-in
programming conventions, functions, writing: Definition Syntax
programming conventions, gawk extensions: Internal File Ops
programming conventions, private variable names: Library Names
programming language, recipe for: History
programming languages, Ada: Glossary
programming languages, data-driven vs. procedural: Getting Started
programming languages, Java: Glossary
programming, basic steps: Basic High Level
programming, concepts: Basic Concepts
programming, concepts: Basic Concepts
pwcat program: Passwd Functions

Q
q debugger command (alias for quit): Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
QSE Awk: Other Versions
Quanstrom, Erik: Alarm Program
question mark (?), ?: operator: Precedence
question mark (?), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
question mark (?), regexp operator: GNU Regexp Operators
QuikTrim Awk: Other Versions
quit debugger command: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
QUIT signal (MS-Windows): Profiling
quoting in gawk command lines: Long
quoting in gawk command lines, tricks for: Quoting
quoting, for small awk programs: Comments

R
r debugger command (alias for run): Debugger Execution Control
Rakitzis, Byron: History Sorting
Ramey, Chet: Acknowledgments
Ramey, Chet: General Data Types
rand() function: Numeric Functions
random numbers, Cliff: Cliff Random Function
random numbers, rand()/srand() functions: Numeric Functions
random numbers, seed of: Numeric Functions
range expressions (regexps): Bracket Expressions
range patterns: Ranges
range patterns, line continuation and: Ranges
Rankin, Pat: Acknowledgments
Rankin, Pat: Assignment Ops
Rankin, Pat: Contributors
Rankin, Pat: Bugs
reada() extension function: Extension Sample Read write array
readable data files, checking: File Checking
readable.awk program: File Checking
readdir extension: Extension Sample Readdir
readfile() extension function: Extension Sample Readfile
readfile() user-defined function: Readfile Function
reading input files: Reading Files
recipe for a programming language: History
record separators: Records
record separators: User-modified
record separators, changing: Records
record separators, regular expressions as: Records
record separators, with multiline records: Multiple Line
records: Reading Files
records: Basic High Level
records, multiline: Multiple Line
records, printing: Print
records, splitting input into: Records
records, terminating: Records
records, treating files as: Records
recursive functions: Definition Syntax
redirect gawk output, in debugger: Debugger Info
redirection of input: Getline/File
redirection of output: Redirection
reference counting, sorting arrays: Array Sorting Functions
regexp: Regexp
regexp constants: Regexp Usage
regexp constants: Regexp Constants
regexp constants: Comparison Operators
regexp constants, /=…/, /= operator and: Assignment Ops
regexp constants, as patterns: Expression Patterns
regexp constants, in gawk: Using Constant Regexps
regexp constants, slashes vs. quotes: Computed Regexps
regexp constants, vs. string constants: Computed Regexps
register extension: Registration Functions
regular expressions: Regexp
regular expressions as field separators: Field Separators
regular expressions, anchors in: Regexp Operators
regular expressions, as field separators: Regexp Field Splitting
regular expressions, as patterns: Regexp Usage
regular expressions, as patterns: Regexp Patterns
regular expressions, as record separators: Records
regular expressions, case sensitivity: Case-sensitivity
regular expressions, case sensitivity: User-modified
regular expressions, computed: Computed Regexps
regular expressions, constants, See regexp constants: Regexp Usage
regular expressions, dynamic: Computed Regexps
regular expressions, dynamic, with embedded newlines: Computed Regexps
regular expressions, gawk, command-line options: GNU Regexp Operators
regular expressions, interval expressions and: Options
regular expressions, leftmost longest match: Leftmost Longest
regular expressions, operators: Regexp Usage
regular expressions, operators: Regexp Operators
regular expressions, operators, for buffers: GNU Regexp Operators
regular expressions, operators, for words: GNU Regexp Operators
regular expressions, operators, gawk: GNU Regexp Operators
regular expressions, operators, precedence of: Regexp Operators
regular expressions, searching for: Egrep Program
relational operators, See comparison operators: Typing and Comparison
replace in string: String Functions
return debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
return statement, user-defined functions: Return Statement
return value, close() function: Close Files And Pipes
rev() user-defined function: Function Example
revoutput extension: Extension Sample Revout
revtwoway extension: Extension Sample Rev2way
rewind() user-defined function: Rewind Function
right angle bracket (>), > operator: Comparison Operators
right angle bracket (>), > operator: Precedence
right angle bracket (>), > operator (I/O): Redirection
right angle bracket (>), >= operator: Comparison Operators
right angle bracket (>), >= operator: Precedence
right angle bracket (>), >> operator (I/O): Redirection
right angle bracket (>), >> operator (I/O): Precedence
right shift: Bitwise Functions
right shift, bitwise: Bitwise Functions
Ritchie, Dennis: Basic Data Typing
RLENGTH variable: Auto-set
RLENGTH variable, match() function and: String Functions
Robbins, Arnold: Command Line Field Separator
Robbins, Arnold: Getline/Pipe
Robbins, Arnold: Passwd Functions
Robbins, Arnold: Alarm Program
Robbins, Arnold: General Data Types
Robbins, Arnold: Contributors
Robbins, Arnold: Bugs
Robbins, Arnold: Future Extensions
Robbins, Bill: Getline/Pipe
Robbins, Harry: Acknowledgments
Robbins, Jean: Acknowledgments
Robbins, Miriam: Acknowledgments
Robbins, Miriam: Getline/Pipe
Robbins, Miriam: Passwd Functions
Rommel, Kai Uwe: Contributors
round to nearest integer: Numeric Functions
round() user-defined function: Round Function
rounding mode, floating-point: Rounding Mode
rounding numbers: Round Function
ROUNDMODE variable: User-modified
ROUNDMODE variable: Setting Rounding Mode
RS variable: Records
RS variable: User-modified
RS variable, multiline records and: Multiple Line
rshift() function (gawk): Bitwise Functions
RSTART variable: Auto-set
RSTART variable, match() function and: String Functions
RT variable: Records
RT variable: Multiple Line
RT variable: Auto-set
Rubin, Paul: History
Rubin, Paul: Contributors
rule, definition of: Getting Started
run debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
rvalues/lvalues: Assignment Ops

S
s debugger command (alias for step): Debugger Execution Control
sample debugging session: Sample Debugging Session
sandbox mode: Options
save debugger options: Debugger Info
scalar or array: Type Functions
scalar values: Basic Data Typing
scanning arrays: Scanning an Array
scanning multidimensional arrays: Multiscanning
Schorr, Andrew: Acknowledgments
Schorr, Andrew: Contributors
Schreiber, Bert: Acknowledgments
Schreiber, Rita: Acknowledgments
search and replace in strings: String Functions
search in string: String Functions
search paths: Igawk Program
search paths: PC Using
search paths: VMS Running
search paths, for shared libraries: AWKLIBPATH Variable
search paths, for source files: AWKPATH Variable
search paths, for source files: Igawk Program
search paths, for source files: PC Using
search paths, for source files: VMS Running
searching, files for regular expressions: Egrep Program
searching, for words: Dupword Program
sed utility: Field Splitting Summary
sed utility: Simple Sed
sed utility: Glossary
seeding random number generator: Numeric Functions
semicolon (;), AWKPATH variable and: PC Using
semicolon (;), separating statements in actions: Statements/Lines
semicolon (;), separating statements in actions: Action Overview
semicolon (;), separating statements in actions: Statements
separators, field: User-modified
separators, field: User-modified
separators, field, FIELDWIDTHS variable and: User-modified
separators, field, FPAT variable and: User-modified
separators, field, POSIX and: Fields
separators, for records: Records
separators, for records: Records
separators, for records: User-modified
separators, for records, regular expressions as: Records
separators, for statements in actions: Action Overview
separators, subscript: User-modified
set breakpoint: Breakpoint Control
set debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
set directory of message catalogs: I18N Functions
set watchpoint: Viewing And Changing Data
setting rounding mode: Setting Rounding Mode
setting working precision: Setting Precision
shadowing of variable values: Definition Syntax
shell quoting, double quote: Read Terminal
shell quoting, rules for: Quoting
shells, piping commands into: Redirection
shells, quoting: Using Shell Variables
shells, quoting, rules for: Quoting
shells, scripts: One-shot
shells, sea: Undocumented
shells, variables: Using Shell Variables
shift, bitwise: Bitwise Functions
short-circuit operators: Boolean Ops
show all source files, in debugger: Debugger Info
show breakpoints: Debugger Info
show function arguments, in debugger: Debugger Info
show local variables, in debugger: Debugger Info
show name of current source file, in debugger: Debugger Info
show watchpoints: Debugger Info
si debugger command (alias for stepi): Debugger Execution Control
side effects: Concatenation
side effects: Increment Ops
side effects: Increment Ops
side effects, array indexing: Reference to Elements
side effects, asort() function: Array Sorting Functions
side effects, assignment expressions: Assignment Ops
side effects, Boolean operators: Boolean Ops
side effects, conditional expressions: Conditional Exp
side effects, decrement/increment operators: Increment Ops
side effects, FILENAME variable: Getline Notes
side effects, function calls: Function Calls
side effects, statements: Action Overview
sidebar, A Constant’s Base Does Not Affect Its Value: Nondecimal-numbers
sidebar, Backslash Before Regular Characters: Escape Sequences
sidebar, Changing FS Does Not Affect the Fields: Field Splitting Summary
sidebar, Changing NR and FNR: Auto-set
sidebar, Controlling Output Buffering with system(): I/O Functions
sidebar, Escape Sequences for Metacharacters: Escape Sequences
sidebar, FS and IGNORECASE: Field Splitting Summary
sidebar, Interactive Versus Noninteractive Buffering: I/O Functions
sidebar, Matching the Null String: Gory Details
sidebar, Operator Evaluation Order: Increment Ops
sidebar, Piping into sh: Redirection
sidebar, Portability Issues with ‘#!: Executable Scripts
sidebar, Recipe For A Programming Language: History
sidebar, RS = "\0" Is Not Portable: Records
sidebar, So Why Does gawk have BEGINFILE and ENDFILE?: Filetrans Function
sidebar, Syntactic Ambiguities Between ‘/=’ and Regular Expressions: Assignment Ops
sidebar, Understanding $0: Changing Fields
sidebar, Using close()’s Return Value: Close Files And Pipes
sidebar, Using \n in Bracket Expressions of Dynamic Regexps: Computed Regexps
SIGHUP signal, for dynamic profiling: Profiling
SIGINT signal (MS-Windows): Profiling
signals, HUP/SIGHUP, for profiling: Profiling
signals, INT/SIGINT (MS-Windows): Profiling
signals, QUIT/SIGQUIT (MS-Windows): Profiling
signals, USR1/SIGUSR1, for profiling: Profiling
signature program: Signature Program
SIGQUIT signal (MS-Windows): Profiling
SIGUSR1 signal, for dynamic profiling: Profiling
silent debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
sin() function: Numeric Functions
sine: Numeric Functions
single precision floating-point: General Arithmetic
single quote ('): One-shot
single quote (') in gawk command lines: Long
single quote ('), in shell commands: Quoting
single quote ('), vs. apostrophe: Comments
single quote ('), with double quotes: Quoting
single-character fields: Single Character Fields
single-step execution, in the debugger: Debugger Execution Control
Skywalker, Luke: Undocumented
sleep utility: Alarm Program
sleep() extension function: Extension Sample Time
Solaris, POSIX-compliant awk: Other Versions
sort array: String Functions
sort array indices: String Functions
sort function, arrays, sorting: Array Sorting Functions
sort utility: Word Sorting
sort utility, coprocesses and: Two-way I/O
sorting characters in different languages: Explaining gettext
source code, awka: Other Versions
source code, Brian Kernighan’s awk: Other Versions
source code, Busybox Awk: Other Versions
source code, gawk: Gawk Distribution
source code, Illumos awk: Other Versions
source code, jawk: Other Versions
source code, libmawk: Other Versions
source code, mawk: Other Versions
source code, mixing: Options
source code, pawk: Other Versions
source code, pawk (Python version): Other Versions
source code, QSE Awk: Other Versions
source code, QuikTrim Awk: Other Versions
source code, Solaris awk: Other Versions
source files, search path for: Igawk Program
sparse arrays: Array Intro
Spencer, Henry: Glossary
split string into array: String Functions
split utility: Split Program
split() function: String Functions
split() function, array elements, deleting: Delete
split.awk program: Split Program
sprintf() function: OFMT
sprintf() function: String Functions
sprintf() function, OFMT variable and: User-modified
sprintf() function, print/printf statements and: Round Function
sqrt() function: Numeric Functions
square brackets ([]), regexp operator: Regexp Operators
square root: Numeric Functions
srand() function: Numeric Functions
stack frame: Debugging Terms
Stallman, Richard: Manual History
Stallman, Richard: Acknowledgments
Stallman, Richard: Contributors
Stallman, Richard: Glossary
standard error: Special FD
standard input: Read Terminal
standard input: Special FD
standard output: Special FD
starting the debugger: Debugger Invocation
stat() extension function: Extension Sample File Functions
statements, compound, control statements and: Statements
statements, control, in actions: Statements
statements, multiple: Statements/Lines
step debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
stepi debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
stop automatic display, in debugger: Viewing And Changing Data
stream editors: Field Splitting Summary
stream editors: Simple Sed
strftime() function (gawk): Time Functions
string constants: Scalar Constants
string constants, vs. regexp constants: Computed Regexps
string extraction (internationalization): String Extraction
string length: String Functions
string operators: Concatenation
string, regular expression match: String Functions
string-manipulation functions: String Functions
string-matching operators: Regexp Usage
string-translation functions: I18N Functions
strings splitting, example: String Functions
strings, converting: Conversion
strings, converting: Bitwise Functions
strings, converting letter case: String Functions
strings, converting, numbers to: User-modified
strings, converting, numbers to: User-modified
strings, empty, See null strings: Records
strings, extracting: String Extraction
strings, for localization: Programmer i18n
strings, length limitations: Scalar Constants
strings, merging arrays into: Join Function
strings, null: Regexp Field Splitting
strings, numeric: Variable Typing
strtonum() function (gawk): String Functions
strtonum() function (gawk), --non-decimal-data option and: Nondecimal Data
sub() function: Using Constant Regexps
sub() function: String Functions
sub() function, arguments of: String Functions
sub() function, escape processing: Gory Details
subscript separators: User-modified
subscripts in arrays, multidimensional: Multidimensional
subscripts in arrays, multidimensional, scanning: Multiscanning
subscripts in arrays, numbers as: Numeric Array Subscripts
subscripts in arrays, uninitialized variables as: Uninitialized Subscripts
SUBSEP variable: User-modified
SUBSEP variable, and multidimensional arrays: Multidimensional
substitute in string: String Functions
substr() function: String Functions
substring: String Functions
Sumner, Andrew: Other Versions
supplementary groups of gawk process: Auto-set
switch statement: Switch Statement
SYMTAB array: Auto-set
syntactic ambiguity: /= operator vs. /=…/ regexp constant: Assignment Ops
system() function: I/O Functions
systime() function (gawk): Time Functions

T
t debugger command (alias for tbreak): Breakpoint Control
tbreak debugger command: Breakpoint Control
Tcl: Library Names
TCP/IP: TCP/IP Networking
TCP/IP, support for: Special Network
tee utility: Tee Program
tee.awk program: Tee Program
temporary breakpoint: Breakpoint Control
terminating records: Records
testbits.awk program: Bitwise Functions
testext extension: Extension Sample API Tests
Texinfo: Conventions
Texinfo: Library Functions
Texinfo: Dupword Program
Texinfo: Extract Program
Texinfo: Distribution contents
Texinfo: Adding Code
Texinfo, chapter beginnings in files: Regexp Operators
Texinfo, extracting programs from source files: Extract Program
text, printing: Print
text, printing, unduplicated lines of: Uniq Program
TEXTDOMAIN variable: User-modified
TEXTDOMAIN variable: Programmer i18n
TEXTDOMAIN variable, BEGIN pattern and: Programmer i18n
TEXTDOMAIN variable, portability and: I18N Portability
textdomain() function (C library): Explaining gettext
tilde (~), ~ operator: Regexp Usage
tilde (~), ~ operator: Case-sensitivity
tilde (~), ~ operator: Computed Regexps
tilde (~), ~ operator: Regexp Constants
tilde (~), ~ operator: Comparison Operators
tilde (~), ~ operator: Comparison Operators
tilde (~), ~ operator: Precedence
tilde (~), ~ operator: Expression Patterns
time functions: Time Functions
time, alarm clock example program: Alarm Program
time, localization and: Explaining gettext
time, managing: Getlocaltime Function
time, retrieving: Time Functions
timeout, reading input: Read Timeout
timestamps: Time Functions
timestamps: Time Functions
timestamps, converting dates to: Time Functions
timestamps, formatted: Getlocaltime Function
tolower() function: String Functions
toupper() function: String Functions
tr utility: Translate Program
trace debugger command: Miscellaneous Debugger Commands
traceback, display in debugger: Execution Stack
translate string: I18N Functions
translate.awk program: Translate Program
treating files, as single records: Records
troubleshooting, --non-decimal-data option: Options
troubleshooting, == operator: Comparison Operators
troubleshooting, awk uses FS not IFS: Field Separators
troubleshooting, backslash before nonspecial character: Escape Sequences
troubleshooting, division: Arithmetic Ops
troubleshooting, fatal errors, field widths, specifying: Constant Size
troubleshooting, fatal errors, printf format strings: Format Modifiers
troubleshooting, fflush() function: I/O Functions
troubleshooting, function call syntax: Function Calls
troubleshooting, gawk: Compatibility Mode
troubleshooting, gawk, bug reports: Bugs
troubleshooting, gawk, fatal errors, function arguments: Calling Built-in
troubleshooting, getline function: File Checking
troubleshooting, gsub()/sub() functions: String Functions
troubleshooting, match() function: String Functions
troubleshooting, patsplit() function: String Functions
troubleshooting, print statement, omitting commas: Print Examples
troubleshooting, printing: Redirection
troubleshooting, quotes with file names: Special FD
troubleshooting, readable data files: File Checking
troubleshooting, regexp constants vs. string constants: Computed Regexps
troubleshooting, string concatenation: Concatenation
troubleshooting, substr() function: String Functions
troubleshooting, system() function: I/O Functions
troubleshooting, typographical errors, global variables: Options
true, logical: Truth Values
Trueman, David: History
Trueman, David: Acknowledgments
Trueman, David: Contributors
trunc-mod operation: Arithmetic Ops
truth values: Truth Values
type conversion: Conversion

U
u debugger command (alias for until): Debugger Execution Control
unassigned array elements: Reference to Elements
undefined functions: Pass By Value/Reference
underscore (_), C macro: Explaining gettext
underscore (_), in names of private variables: Library Names
underscore (_), translatable string: Programmer i18n
undisplay debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
undocumented features: Undocumented
Unicode: Ordinal Functions
Unicode: Ranges and Locales
Unicode: Glossary
uninitialized variables, as array subscripts: Uninitialized Subscripts
uniq utility: Uniq Program
uniq.awk program: Uniq Program
Unix: Glossary
Unix awk, backslashes in escape sequences: Escape Sequences
Unix awk, close() function and: Close Files And Pipes
Unix awk, password files, field separators and: Command Line Field Separator
Unix, awk scripts and: Executable Scripts
UNIXROOT variable, on OS/2 systems: PC Using
unsigned integers: General Arithmetic
until debugger command: Debugger Execution Control
unwatch debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
up debugger command: Execution Stack
user database, reading: Passwd Functions
user-defined functions: User-defined
user-defined, functions, counts, in a profile: Profiling
user-defined, variables: Variables
user-modifiable variables: User-modified
users, information about, printing: Id Program
users, information about, retrieving: Passwd Functions
USR1 signal, for dynamic profiling: Profiling

V
values, numeric: Basic Data Typing
values, string: Basic Data Typing
variable assignments and input files: Other Arguments
variable typing: Typing and Comparison
variables: Other Features
variables: Basic Data Typing
variables, assigning on command line: Assignment Options
variables, built-in: Using Variables
variables, built-in: Built-in Variables
variables, built-in, -v option, setting with: Options
variables, built-in, conveying information: Auto-set
variables, flag: Boolean Ops
variables, getline command into, using: Getline/Variable
variables, getline command into, using: Getline/Variable/File
variables, getline command into, using: Getline/Variable/Pipe
variables, getline command into, using: Getline/Variable/Coprocess
variables, global, for library functions: Library Names
variables, global, printing list of: Options
variables, initializing: Using Variables
variables, local to a function: Variable Scope
variables, names of: Arrays
variables, private: Library Names
variables, setting: Options
variables, shadowing: Definition Syntax
variables, types of: Assignment Ops
variables, types of, comparison expressions and: Typing and Comparison
variables, uninitialized, as array subscripts: Uninitialized Subscripts
variables, user-defined: Variables
version of gawk: Auto-set
version of gawk extension API: Auto-set
version of GNU MP library: Auto-set
version of GNU MPFR library: Auto-set
vertical bar (|): Regexp Operators
vertical bar (|), | operator (I/O): Getline/Pipe
vertical bar (|), | operator (I/O): Precedence
vertical bar (|), |& operator (I/O): Getline/Coprocess
vertical bar (|), |& operator (I/O): Precedence
vertical bar (|), |& operator (I/O): Two-way I/O
vertical bar (|), || operator: Boolean Ops
vertical bar (|), || operator: Precedence
Vinschen, Corinna: Acknowledgments

W
w debugger command (alias for watch): Viewing And Changing Data
w utility: Constant Size
wait() extension function: Extension Sample Fork
waitpid() extension function: Extension Sample Fork
walk_array() user-defined function: Walking Arrays
Wall, Larry: Array Intro
Wall, Larry: Future Extensions
Wallin, Anders: Contributors
warnings, issuing: Options
watch debugger command: Viewing And Changing Data
watchpoint: Debugging Terms
wc utility: Wc Program
wc.awk program: Wc Program
Weinberger, Peter: History
Weinberger, Peter: Contributors
while statement: While Statement
while statement, use of regexps in: Regexp Usage
whitespace, as field separators: Default Field Splitting
whitespace, functions, calling: Calling Built-in
whitespace, newlines as: Options
Williams, Kent: Contributors
Woehlke, Matthew: Contributors
Woods, John: Contributors
word boundaries, matching: GNU Regexp Operators
word, regexp definition of: GNU Regexp Operators
word-boundary operator (gawk): GNU Regexp Operators
wordfreq.awk program: Word Sorting
words, counting: Wc Program
words, duplicate, searching for: Dupword Program
words, usage counts, generating: Word Sorting
writea() extension function: Extension Sample Read write array

X
xgettext utility: String Extraction
XOR bitwise operation: Bitwise Functions
xor() function (gawk): Bitwise Functions

Y
Yawitz, Efraim: Contributors

Z
Zaretskii, Eli: Acknowledgments
Zaretskii, Eli: Contributors
Zaretskii, Eli: Bugs
zero, negative vs. positive: Unexpected Results
zerofile.awk program: Empty Files
Zoulas, Christos: Contributors

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