 Index Entry   Section 

"   
 ‘"’:   Tokens 
 “is defined as”:   BNF 

$   
 $CASENUM :   System Variables 
 $DATE :   System Variables 
 $DATE11 :   System Variables 
 $JDATE :   System Variables 
 $LENGTH :   System Variables 
 $SYSMIS :   System Variables 
 $TIME :   System Variables 
 $WIDTH :   System Variables 

&   
 ‘&’:   Logical Operators 

'   
 ‘'’:   Tokens 

(   
 ( :   Functions 
 ‘( )’:   Grouping Operators 

)   
 ) :   Functions 

*   
 ‘*’:   Arithmetic Operators 
 ‘**’:   Arithmetic Operators 

+   
 ‘+’:   Arithmetic Operators 

   
 ‘’:   Arithmetic Operators 
 ‘’:   Arithmetic Operators 

.   
 ‘.’:   Attributes 
 . :   BNF 

/   
 ‘/’:   Arithmetic Operators 

<   
 < :   Relational Operators 
 <= :   Relational Operators 
 <> :   Relational Operators 

=   
 ‘=’:   Relational Operators 

>   
 ‘>’:   Relational Operators 
 >= :   Relational Operators 

_   
 ‘_’:   Attributes 

   
 ‘’:   Logical Operators 

~   
 ‘~’:   Logical Operators 
 ~= :   Relational Operators 

A   
 absolute value:   Miscellaneous Mathematics 
 addition:   Arithmetic Operators 
 analysis of variance:   GLM 
 analysis of variance:   ONEWAY 
 AND :   Logical Operators 
 ANOVA:   GLM 
 ANOVA:   ONEWAY 
 arccosine:   Trigonometry 
 arcsine:   Trigonometry 
 arctangent:   Trigonometry 
 Area under curve:   ROC 
 arguments, invalid:   Date Construction 
 arguments, minimum valid:   Statistical Functions 
 arguments, of date construction functions:   Date Construction 
 arguments, of date extraction functions:   Date Extraction 
 arithmetic mean:   MEANS 
 arithmetic operators:   Arithmetic Operators 
 attributes of variables:   Attributes 

B   
 BackusNaur Form:   BNF 
 bar chart:   FREQUENCIES 
 bar chart:   BAR CHART 
 bar chart:   CROSSTABS 
 Batch syntax:   Syntax Variants 
 binary formats:   Binary and Hexadecimal Numeric Formats 
 binomial test:   BINOMIAL 
 bivariate logistic regression:   LOGISTIC REGRESSION 
 BNF:   BNF 
 Boolean:   Boolean Values 
 Boolean:   Logical Operators 
 boxplot:   EXAMINE 
 bugs:   Bugs 

C   
 case conversion:   String Functions 
 casesensitivity:   Tokens 
 casesensitivity:   Tokens 
 cases:   Data Input and Output 
 changing directory:   CD 
 changing file permissions:   PERMISSIONS 
 chisquare:   CROSSTABS 
 chisquare test:   CHISQUARE 
 chisquare test of independence:   CROSSTABS 
 clustering:   QUICK CLUSTER 
 Cochran Q test:   COCHRAN 
 coefficient of concordance:   KENDALL 
 coefficient of variation:   Statistical Functions 
 comma separated values:   Reading data from other sources 
 command file:   Files 
 command syntax, description of:   BNF 
 commands, ordering:   Order of Commands 
 commands, structure:   Commands 
 commands, unimplemented:   Not Implemented 
 concatenation:   String Functions 
 conditionals:   Conditionals and Looping 
 consistency:   Testing data consistency 
 constructing dates:   Date Construction 
 constructing times:   Time Construction 
 control flow:   Conditionals and Looping 
 convention, TO :   Sets of Variables 
 copyright:   License 
 correlation:   CORRELATIONS 
 cosine:   Trigonometry 
 covariance:   CORRELATIONS 
 Cronbach’s Alpha:   RELIABILITY 
 crosscase function:   Miscellaneous Functions 
 currency formats:   Custom Currency Formats 
 custom attributes:   Attributes 

D   
 data:   Data Input and Output 
 data file:   Files 
 data files:   GET DATA /TYPE=TXT 
 data reduction:   FACTOR 
 Data, embedding in syntax files:   BEGIN DATA 
 data, embedding in syntax files:   DATA LIST 
 data, fixedformat, reading:   DATA LIST FIXED 
 data, reading from a file:   DATA LIST 
 databases:   Reading data from other sources 
 databases:   GET DATA /TYPE=PSQL 
 dataset:   Datasets 
 date examination:   Date Extraction 
 date formats:   Time and Date Formats 
 date, Julian:   Miscellaneous Functions 
 dates:   Time and Date 
 dates, concepts:   Time and Date Concepts 
 dates, constructing:   Date Construction 
 dates, day of the month:   Date Extraction 
 dates, day of the week:   Date Extraction 
 dates, day of the year:   Date Extraction 
 dates, daymonthyear:   Date Construction 
 dates, in days:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in hours:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in minutes:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in months:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in quarters:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in seconds:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in weekdays:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in weeks:   Date Extraction 
 dates, in years:   Date Extraction 
 dates, mathematical properties of:   Time and Date Arithmetic 
 dates, monthyear:   Date Construction 
 dates, quarteryear:   Date Construction 
 dates, time of day:   Date Extraction 
 dates, valid:   Time and Date 
 dates, weekyear:   Date Construction 
 dates, yearday:   Date Construction 
 day of the month:   Date Extraction 
 day of the week:   Date Extraction 
 day of the year:   Date Extraction 
 daymonthyear:   Date Construction 
 days:   Time Construction 
 days:   Time Extraction 
 days:   Date Extraction 
 days:   Date Extraction 
 decimal places:   OUTPUT 
 description of command syntax:   BNF 
 deviation, standard:   Statistical Functions 
 dictionary:   Datasets 
 directory:   CD 
 division:   Arithmetic Operators 
 DocBook:   Introduction 

E   
 Embedding data in syntax files:   BEGIN DATA 
 embedding data in syntax files:   DATA LIST 
 embedding fixedformat data:   DATA LIST FIXED 
 encoding, characters:   SET 
 EQ :   Relational Operators 
 equality, testing:   Relational Operators 
 erroneous data:   Identifying incorrect data 
 errors, in data:   Identifying incorrect data 
 examination, of times:   Time Extraction 
 Exploratory data analysis:   EXAMINE 
 Exploratory data analysis:   GRAPH 
 exponentiation:   Arithmetic Operators 
 expression :   BNF 
 expressions, mathematical:   Expressions 
 extraction, of dates:   Date Extraction 
 extraction, of time:   Time Extraction 

F   
 factor analysis:   FACTOR 
 factorial anova:   GLM 
 false:   Logical Operators 
 file definition commands:   Types of Commands 
 file handles:   File Handles 
 file mode:   PERMISSIONS 
 file, command:   Files 
 file, data:   Files 
 file, output:   Files 
 file, portable:   Files 
 file, syntax file:   Files 
 file, system:   Files 
 fixed effects:   GLM 
 fixedformat data, reading:   DATA LIST FIXED 
 flow of control:   Conditionals and Looping 
 formats:   Input and Output Formats 
 Friedman test:   FRIEDMAN 
 function, crosscase:   Miscellaneous Functions 
 functions:   Functions 
 functions, miscellaneous:   Miscellaneous Functions 
 functions, missingvalue:   Missing Value Functions 
 functions, statistical:   Statistical Functions 
 functions, string:   String Functions 
 functions, time & date:   Time and Date 

G   
 GE :   Relational Operators 
 geometric mean:   MEANS 
 Gnumeric:   GET DATA /TYPE=GNM/ODS 
 Graphic user interface:   Invoking PSPPIRE 
 greater than:   Relational Operators 
 greater than or equal to:   Relational Operators 
 grouping operators:   Grouping Operators 
 GT :   Relational Operators 

H   
 harmonic mean:   MEANS 
 headers:   SET 
 hexadecimal formats:   Binary and Hexadecimal Numeric Formats 
 histogram:   FREQUENCIES 
 histogram:   EXAMINE 
 histogram:   HISTOGRAM 
 hours:   Time Extraction 
 hours:   Date Extraction 
 hoursminutesseconds:   Time Construction 
 HTML:   Introduction 
 HTML:   HTML Output Options 
 Hypothesis testing:   Hypothesis Testing 

I   
 identifiers:   Tokens 
 identifiers, reserved:   Tokens 
 inequality, testing:   Relational Operators 
 input:   Data Input and Output 
 input program commands:   Types of Commands 
 integer :   BNF 
 integers:   Tokens 
 Interactive syntax:   Syntax Variants 
 intersection, logical:   Logical Operators 
 introduction:   Introduction 
 inverse cosine:   Trigonometry 
 inverse sine:   Trigonometry 
 inverse tangent:   Trigonometry 
 inversion, logical:   Logical Operators 
 Inverting data:   Inverting negatively coded variables 
 invocation:   Invoking PSPP 
 Invocation:   Invoking psppconvert 
 Invocation:   Invoking psppoutput 
 Invocation:   Invoking psppdumpsav 

J   
 Julian date:   Miscellaneous Functions 

K   
 Kmeans clustering:   QUICK CLUSTER 
 Kendall’s W test:   KENDALL 
 keywords:   BNF 
 KolmogorovSmirnov test:   KOLMOGOROVSMIRNOV 
 KruskalWallis test:   KRUSKALWALLIS 

L   
 labels, value:   Attributes 
 labels, variable:   Attributes 
 language, command structure:   Commands 
 language, lexical analysis:   Tokens 
 language, PSPP:   Introduction 
 language, PSPP:   Language 
 language, tokens:   Tokens 
 LE :   Relational Operators 
 length:   SET 
 less than:   Relational Operators 
 less than or equal to:   Relational Operators 
 lexical analysis:   Tokens 
 licence:   License 
 license:   License 
 Likert scale:   Inverting negatively coded variables 
 linear regression:   Linear Regression 
 linear regression:   REGRESSION 
 locale:   SET 
 logarithms:   Mathematics 
 logical intersection:   Logical Operators 
 logical inversion:   Logical Operators 
 logical operators:   Logical Operators 
 logical union:   Logical Operators 
 logistic regression:   LOGISTIC REGRESSION 
 loops:   Conditionals and Looping 
 LT :   Relational Operators 

M   
 macro:   DEFINE 
 MannWhitney U test:   MANNWHITNEY 
 mathematical expressions:   Expressions 
 mathematics:   Functions 
 mathematics, advanced:   Mathematics 
 mathematics, applied to times & dates:   Time and Date Arithmetic 
 mathematics, miscellaneous:   Miscellaneous Mathematics 
 maximum:   Statistical Functions 
 McNemar test:   MCNEMAR 
 mean:   Statistical Functions 
 means:   MEANS 
 median:   Statistical Functions 
 Median test:   MEDIAN 
 membership, of set:   Set Membership 
 memory, amount used to store cases:   SET 
 minimum:   Statistical Functions 
 minimum valid number of arguments:   Statistical Functions 
 minutes:   Time Extraction 
 minutes:   Date Extraction 
 missing values:   Missing Observations 
 missing values:   Attributes 
 missing values:   Missing Value Functions 
 mode:   PERMISSIONS 
 modulus:   Miscellaneous Mathematics 
 modulus, by 10:   Miscellaneous Mathematics 
 monthyear:   Date Construction 
 months:   Date Extraction 
 multiplication:   Arithmetic Operators 

N   
 names, of functions:   Functions 
 NE :   Relational Operators 
 negation:   Arithmetic Operators 
 nonparametric tests:   NPAR TESTS 
 nonterminals:   BNF 
 normality, testing:   Testing for normality 
 normality, testing:   EXAMINE 
 normality, testing:   GRAPH 
 NOT :   Logical Operators 
 npplot:   EXAMINE 
 null hypothesis:   Hypothesis Testing 
 number :   BNF 
 numbers:   Tokens 
 numbers, converting from strings:   String Functions 
 numbers, converting to strings:   String Functions 
 numeric formats:   Basic Numeric Formats 

O   
 obligations, your:   License 
 observations:   Data Input and Output 
 OpenDocument:   GET DATA /TYPE=GNM/ODS 
 operations, order of:   Order of Operations 
 operator precedence:   Order of Operations 
 operators:   Tokens 
 operators:   BNF 
 operators:   Functions 
 operators, arithmetic:   Arithmetic Operators 
 operators, grouping:   Grouping Operators 
 operators, logical:   Logical Operators 
 OR :   Logical Operators 
 order of commands:   Order of Commands 
 order of operations:   Order of Operations 
 output:   Data Input and Output 
 output file:   Files 

P   
 pvalue:   Hypothesis Testing 
 pager:   SET 
 parentheses:   Grouping Operators 
 parentheses:   Functions 
 PDF:   Introduction 
 PDF:   PDF PostScript SVG and PNG Output Options 
 percentiles:   FREQUENCIES 
 percentiles:   EXAMINE 
 period:   Attributes 
 piechart:   FREQUENCIES 
 PNG:   PDF PostScript SVG and PNG Output Options 
 portable file:   Files 
 postgres:   GET DATA /TYPE=PSQL 
 PostScript:   Introduction 
 Postscript:   PDF PostScript SVG and PNG Output Options 
 precedence, operator:   Order of Operations 
 precision, of output:   OUTPUT 
 principal axis factoring:   FACTOR 
 principal components analysis:   FACTOR 
 print format:   Attributes 
 procedures:   Types of Commands 
 productions:   BNF 
 productions:   BNF 
 PSPP language:   Introduction 
 PSPP, command structure:   Commands 
 PSPP, invoking:   Invoking PSPP 
 PSPP, language:   Language 
 psppconvert :   Invoking psppconvert 
 psppdumpsav :   Invoking psppdumpsav 
 psppoutput :   Invoking psppoutput 
 PSPPIRE:   Invoking PSPPIRE 
 punctuators:   Tokens 
 punctuators:   BNF 

Q   
 Q, Cochran Q:   COCHRAN 
 quarteryear:   Date Construction 
 quarters:   Date Extraction 

R   
 reading data:   Reading data from a text file 
 reading data from a file:   DATA LIST 
 reading fixedformat data:   DATA LIST FIXED 
 reals:   Tokens 
 Receiver Operating Characteristic:   ROC 
 recoding data:   Dealing with suspicious data 
 regression:   REGRESSION 
 reliability:   Testing data consistency 
 replacing substrings:   String Functions 
 reserved identifiers:   Tokens 
 restricted expressions:   Matrix Expressions 
 restricted transformations:   Types of Commands 
 rights, your:   License 
 rounding:   Miscellaneous Mathematics 
 runs test:   RUNS 

S   
 saving:   Saving data to a PSPP file. 
 scatterplot:   SCATTERPLOT 
 scratch variables:   Scratch Variables 
 screening:   Data Screening and Transformation 
 searching strings:   String Functions 
 seconds:   Time Extraction 
 seconds:   Date Extraction 
 set membership:   Set Membership 
 ShapiroWilk:   EXAMINE 
 sign test:   SIGN 
 sine:   Trigonometry 
 spreadlevel plot:   EXAMINE 
 spreadsheet files:   GET DATA /TYPE=GNM/ODS 
 spreadsheets:   Reading data from other sources 
 square roots:   Mathematics 
 standard deviation:   Statistical Functions 
 start symbol:   BNF 
 statistics:   Statistical Functions 
 string :   BNF 
 string formats:   String Formats 
 string functions:   String Functions 
 strings:   Tokens 
 strings, case of:   String Functions 
 strings, case of:   String Functions 
 strings, concatenation of:   String Functions 
 strings, converting from numbers:   String Functions 
 strings, converting to numbers:   String Functions 
 strings, finding length of:   String Functions 
 strings, padding:   String Functions 
 strings, replacing substrings:   String Functions 
 strings, taking substrings of:   String Functions 
 strings, trimming:   String Functions 
 strings, trimming:   String Functions 
 strings, truncating:   String Functions 
 substrings:   String Functions 
 subtraction:   Arithmetic Operators 
 sum:   Statistical Functions 
 SVG:   PDF PostScript SVG and PNG Output Options 
 symbol, start:   BNF 
 syntax file:   Files 
 SYSMIS:   Dealing with suspicious data 
 system file:   Files 
 system files:   Reading data from a preprepared PSPP file 
 system variables:   System Variables 
 systemmissing:   Logical Operators 

T   
 Ttest:   Testing for differences of means 
 tangent:   Trigonometry 
 terminals:   BNF 
 terminals and nonterminals, differences:   BNF 
 testing for equality:   Relational Operators 
 testing for inequality:   Relational Operators 
 TeX:   TeX Output Options 
 tex:   TeX Output Options 
 text files:   GET DATA /TYPE=TXT 
 time:   Date Extraction 
 time examination:   Time Extraction 
 time formats:   Time and Date Formats 
 time, concepts:   Time and Date Concepts 
 time, in days:   Time Construction 
 time, in days:   Time Extraction 
 time, in days:   Date Extraction 
 time, in hours:   Time Extraction 
 time, in hours:   Date Extraction 
 time, in hoursminutesseconds:   Time Construction 
 time, in minutes:   Time Extraction 
 time, in minutes:   Date Extraction 
 time, in seconds:   Time Extraction 
 time, in seconds:   Date Extraction 
 time, instants of:   Time and Date Concepts 
 time, intervals:   Time and Date Concepts 
 time, lengths of:   Time Extraction 
 time, mathematical properties of:   Time and Date Arithmetic 
 times:   Time and Date 
 times, constructing:   Time Construction 
 times, in days:   Date Extraction 
 tnumbers:   SET 
 TO convention:   Sets of Variables 
 tokens:   Tokens 
 transformation:   Data Screening and Transformation 
 transformations:   Types of Commands 
 transformations:   Data Manipulation 
 trigonometry:   Trigonometry 
 troubleshooting:   Bugs 
 true:   Logical Operators 
 truncation:   Miscellaneous Mathematics 
 type of variables:   Attributes 

U   
 U, MannWhitney U:   MANNWHITNEY 
 unimplemented commands:   Not Implemented 
 union, logical:   Logical Operators 
 univariate analysis of variance:   GLM 
 utility commands:   Types of Commands 

V   
 value label:   Miscellaneous Functions 
 value labels:   Attributes 
 values, Boolean:   Boolean Values 
 values, missing:   Missing Observations 
 values, missing:   Attributes 
 values, missing:   Missing Value Functions 
 values, systemmissing:   Logical Operators 
 varlist :   BNF 
 varname :   BNF 
 variable:   Datasets 
 variable labels:   Attributes 
 variable names, ending with period:   Attributes 
 variable role:   Attributes 
 variables:   Defining Variables 
 Variables:   Manipulating Variables 
 variables, attributes of:   Attributes 
 variables, system:   System Variables 
 variables, type:   Attributes 
 variables, width:   Attributes 
 variance:   Statistical Functions 
 variation, coefficient of:   Statistical Functions 

W   
 week:   Date Extraction 
 weekyear:   Date Construction 
 weekday:   Date Extraction 
 white space, trimming:   String Functions 
 white space, trimming:   String Functions 
 width:   SET 
 width of variables:   Attributes 
 wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test:   WILCOXON 
 workspace:   SET 
 write format:   Attributes 

Y   
 yearday:   Date Construction 
 years:   Date Extraction 
 your rights and obligations:   License 
